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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(MARK ONE)

 

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

 

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from to

Commission File No. 1-10765

 

UNIVERSAL HEALTH SERVICES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

23-2077891

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

 

UNIVERSAL CORPORATE CENTER

 

 

367 South Gulph Road

P.O. Box 61558

King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

 

19406-0958

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (610) 768-3300

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class B Common Stock, $0.01 par value

UHS

New York Stock Exchange

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Class D Common Stock, $.01 par value

(Title of each Class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2022 was $6.4 billion. (For the purpose of this calculation, it was assumed that Class A, Class C, and Class D Common Stock, which are not traded but are convertible share-for-share into Class B Common Stock, have the same market value as Class B Common Stock. Also, for purposes of this calculation only, all directors are deemed to be affiliates.)

The number of shares of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock, $.01 par value, Class B Common Stock, $.01 par value, Class C Common Stock, $.01 par value, and Class D Common Stock, $.01 par value, outstanding as of January 31, 2023, were 6,577,100; 63,417,294; 661,688 and 14,170, respectively.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for our 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2022 (incorporated by reference under Part III).

 

 


UNIVERSAL HEALTH SERVICES, INC.

2022 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I

 

Item 1

 

Business

1

Item 1A

 

Risk Factors

12

Item 1B

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

26

Item 2

 

Properties

26

Item 3

 

Legal Proceedings

35

Item 4

 

Mine Safety Disclosure

35

 

 

PART II

 

Item 5

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

36

Item 6

 

[RESERVED]

37

Item 7

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

38

Item 7A

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

75

Item 8

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

76

Item 9

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

76

Item 9A

 

Controls and Procedures

76

Item 9B

 

Other Information

77

Item 9C

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

77

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

Item 10

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

78

Item 11

 

Executive Compensation

78

Item 12

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

78

Item 13

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

78

Item 14

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

78

 

 

PART IV

 

Item 15

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

79

Item 16

 

Form 10-K Summary

86

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

87

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K is for the year ended December 31, 2022. This Annual Report modifies and supersedes documents filed prior to this Annual Report. Information that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) in the future will automatically update and supersede information contained in this Annual Report.

In this Annual Report, “we,” “us,” “our” “UHS” and the “Company” refer to Universal Health Services, Inc. and its subsidiaries. UHS is a registered trademark of UHS of Delaware, Inc., the management company for, and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Universal Health Services, Inc. Universal Health Services, Inc. is a holding company and operates through its subsidiaries including its management company, UHS of Delaware, Inc. All healthcare and management operations are conducted by subsidiaries of Universal Health Services, Inc. To the extent any reference to “UHS” or “UHS facilities” in this report including letters, narratives or other forms contained herein relates to our healthcare or management operations it is referring to Universal Health Services, Inc.’s subsidiaries including UHS of Delaware, Inc. Further, the terms “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” in such context similarly refer to the operations of Universal Health Services Inc.’s subsidiaries including UHS of Delaware, Inc. Any reference to employees or employment contained herein refers to employment with or employees of the subsidiaries of Universal Health Services, Inc. including UHS of Delaware, Inc.

 

 

 


PART I

ITEM 1. Business

Our principal business is owning and operating, through our subsidiaries, acute care hospitals and outpatient facilities and behavioral health care facilities.

As of February 27, 2023, we owned and/or operated 359 inpatient facilities and 39 outpatient and other facilities including the following located in 39 states, Washington, D.C., the United Kingdom and Puerto Rico:

Acute care facilities located in the U.S.:

28 inpatient acute care hospitals;
21 free-standing emergency departments, and;
7 outpatient centers & 1 surgical hospital.

Behavioral health care facilities (331 inpatient facilities and 10 outpatient facilities):

Located in the U.S.:

185 inpatient behavioral health care facilities, and;
8 outpatient behavioral health care facilities.

Located in the U.K.:

143 inpatient behavioral health care facilities, and;
2 outpatient behavioral health care facilities.

Located in Puerto Rico:

3 inpatient behavioral health care facilities.

Net revenues from our acute care hospitals, outpatient facilities and commercial health insurer accounted for 57% of our consolidated net revenues during 2022 and 56% during 2021. Net revenues from our behavioral health care facilities and commercial health insurer accounted for 43% of our consolidated net revenues during 2022 and 44% during 2021.

Our behavioral health care facilities located in the U.K. generated net revenues of approximately $685 million in 2022 and $688 million in 2021. Total assets at our U.K. behavioral health care facilities were approximately $1.235 billion as of December 31, 2022 and $1.351 billion as of December 31, 2021.

Services provided by our hospitals include general and specialty surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics, emergency room care, radiology, oncology, diagnostic care, coronary care, pediatric services, pharmacy services and/or behavioral health services. We provide capital resources as well as a variety of management services to our facilities, including central purchasing, information services, finance and control systems, facilities planning, physician recruitment services, administrative personnel management, marketing and public relations.

Available Information

We are a Delaware corporation that was organized in 1979. Our principal executive offices are located at Universal Corporate Center, 367 South Gulph Road, P.O. Box 61558, King of Prussia, PA 19406. Our telephone number is (610) 768-3300.

Our website is located at www.uhs.com. Copies of our annual, quarterly and current reports that we file with the SEC, and any amendments to those reports, are available free of charge on our website. Our filings are also available to the public at the website maintained by the SEC, www.sec.gov. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report. Our Board of Directors’ committee charters (Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating & Governance Committee and Quality and Compliance Committee), Code of Business Conduct and Corporate Standards applicable to all employees, Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers, Corporate Governance Guidelines and our Code of Conduct, Corporate Compliance Manual and Compliance Policies and Procedures are available free of charge on our website. Copies of such reports and charters are available in print to any stockholder who makes a request. Such requests should be made to our Secretary at our King of Prussia, PA corporate headquarters. We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K relating to amendments to or waivers of any provision of our Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers by promptly posting this information on our website.

In accordance with Section 303A.12(a) of the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual, we submitted our CEO’s certification to the New York Stock Exchange in 2022. Additionally, contained in Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, are our CEO’s and CFO’s certifications regarding the quality of our public disclosures under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

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Our Mission

Our company mission is:

To provide superior quality healthcare services that

PATIENTS recommend to families and friends,

PHYSICIANS prefer for their patients,

PURCHASERS select for their clients,

EMPLOYEES are proud of, and

INVESTORS seek for long-term returns.


To achieve this, we have a commitment to:

service excellence
continuous improvement in measurable ways
employee development
ethical and fair treatment of all
teamwork
compassion
innovation in service delivery

Business Strategy

We believe community-based hospitals will remain the focal point of the healthcare delivery network and we are committed to a philosophy of self-determination for both the company and our hospitals.

Acquisition of Additional Hospitals. We selectively seek opportunities to expand our base of operations by acquiring, constructing or leasing additional hospital facilities. We are committed to a program of rational growth around our core businesses, while retaining the missions of the hospitals we manage and the communities we serve. Such expansion may provide us with access to new markets and new healthcare delivery capabilities. We also continue to examine our facilities and consider divestiture of those facilities that we believe do not have the potential to contribute to our growth or operating strategy. In recent years our behavioral health services segment has been focused on efforts to partner with non-UHS acute care hospitals to help operate their behavioral health services. These arrangements include hospital purchases, leased beds and joint venture operating agreements.

Improvement of Operations of Existing Hospitals and Services. We also seek to increase the operating revenues and profitability of owned hospitals by the introduction of new services, improvement of existing services, physician recruitment and the application of financial and operational controls.

We are involved in continual development activities for the benefit of our existing facilities. From time-to-time applications are filed with state health planning agencies to add new services in existing hospitals in states which require certificates of need, or CONs. Although we expect that some of these applications will result in the addition of new facilities or services to our operations, no assurances can be made for ultimate success by us in these efforts.

Quality and Efficiency of Services. Pressures to contain healthcare costs and technological developments allowing more procedures to be performed on an outpatient basis have led payers to demand a shift to ambulatory or outpatient care wherever possible. We are responding to this trend by emphasizing the expansion of outpatient services. In addition, in response to cost containment pressures, we continue to implement programs at our facilities designed to improve financial performance and efficiency while continuing to provide quality care, including more efficient use of professional and paraprofessional staff, monitoring and adjusting staffing levels and equipment usage, improving patient management and reporting procedures and implementing more efficient billing and collection procedures. In addition, we will continue to emphasize innovation in our response to the rapid changes in regulatory trends and market conditions while fulfilling our commitment to patients, physicians, employees, communities and our stockholders.

In addition, our aggressive recruiting of highly qualified physicians and developing provider networks help to establish our facilities as an important source of quality healthcare in their respective communities.

Hospital Utilization

We believe that the most important factors relating to the overall utilization of a hospital include the quality and market position of the hospital and the number, quality and specialties of physicians providing patient care within the facility. Generally, we believe that the ability of a hospital to meet the health care needs of its community is determined by its breadth of services, level of technology, emphasis on quality of care and convenience for patients and physicians. Other factors that affect utilization include general and local economic conditions, market penetration of managed care programs, the degree of outpatient use, the availability of

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reimbursement programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, and demographic changes such as the growth in local populations. Utilization across the industry also is being affected by improvements in clinical practice, medical technology and pharmacology. Current industry trends in utilization and occupancy have been significantly affected by changes in reimbursement policies of third party payers. We are also unable to predict the extent to which these industry trends will continue or accelerate. In addition, our acute care services business is typically subject to certain seasonal fluctuations, such as higher patient volumes and net patient service revenues in the first and fourth quarters of the year.

Sources of Revenue

We receive payments for services rendered from private insurers, including managed care plans, the federal government under the Medicare program, state governments under their respective Medicaid programs and directly from patients. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Sources of Revenue for additional disclosure. Other information related to our revenues, income and other operating information for each reporting segment of our business is provided in Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements, Segment Reporting.

Regulation and Other Factors

Overview: The healthcare industry is subject to numerous laws, regulations and rules including, among others, those related to government healthcare participation requirements, various licensure and accreditations, reimbursement for patient services, health information privacy and security rules, and Medicare and Medicaid fraud and abuse provisions (including, but not limited to, federal statutes and regulations prohibiting kickbacks and other illegal inducements to potential referral sources, false claims submitted to federal or state health care programs and self-referrals by physicians). Providers that are found to have violated any of these laws and regulations may be excluded from participating in government healthcare programs, subjected to significant fines or penalties and/or required to repay amounts received from the government for previously billed patient services. Although we believe our policies, procedures and practices comply with governmental regulations, no assurance can be given that we will not be subjected to additional governmental inquiries or actions, or that we would not be faced with sanctions, fines or penalties if so subjected. Even if we were to ultimately prevail, a significant governmental inquiry or action under one of the above laws, regulations or rules could have a material adverse impact on us.

Licensing, Certification and Accreditation: All of our U.S. hospitals are subject to compliance with various federal, state and local statutes and regulations in the U.S. and receive periodic inspection by state licensing agencies to review standards of medical care, equipment and cleanliness. Our hospitals must also comply with the conditions of participation and licensing requirements of federal, state and local health agencies, as well as the requirements of municipal building codes, health codes and local fire departments. Various other licenses and permits are also required in order to dispense narcotics, operate pharmacies, handle radioactive materials and operate certain equipment. Our facilities in the United Kingdom are also subject to various laws and regulations.

All of our eligible hospitals have been accredited by The Joint Commission. All of our acute care hospitals and most of our behavioral health centers in the U.S. are certified as providers of Medicare and Medicaid services by the appropriate governmental authorities.

If any of our facilities were to lose its Joint Commission accreditation or otherwise lose its certification under the Medicare and Medicaid programs, the facility may be unable to receive reimbursement from the Medicare and Medicaid programs and other payers. We believe our facilities are in substantial compliance with current applicable federal, state, local and independent review body regulations and standards. The requirements for licensure, certification and accreditation are subject to change and, in order to remain qualified, it may become necessary for us to make changes in our facilities, equipment, personnel and services in the future, which could have a material adverse impact on operations.

Certificates of Need: Many of the states in which we operate hospitals have enacted certificates of need (“CON”) laws as a condition prior to hospital capital expenditures, construction, expansion, modernization or initiation of major new services. Failure to obtain necessary state approval can result in our inability to complete an acquisition, expansion or replacement, the imposition of civil or, in some cases, criminal sanctions, the inability to receive Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement or the revocation of a facility’s license, which could harm our business. In addition, significant CON reforms have been proposed in a number of states that would increase the capital spending thresholds and provide exemptions of various services from review requirements. In the past, we have not experienced any material adverse effects from those requirements, but we cannot predict the impact of these changes upon our operations.

Conversion Legislation: Many states have enacted or are considering enacting laws affecting the conversion or sale of not-for-profit hospitals to for-profit entities. These laws generally require prior approval from the attorney general, advance notification and community involvement. In addition, attorneys general in states without specific conversion legislation may exercise discretionary authority over these transactions. Although the level of government involvement varies from state to state, the trend is to provide for increased governmental review and, in some cases, approval of a transaction in which a not-for-profit entity sells a health care facility to a for-profit entity. The adoption of new or expanded conversion legislation and the increased review of not-for-profit hospital conversions may limit our ability to grow through acquisitions of not-for-profit hospitals.

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Utilization Review: Federal regulations require that admissions and utilization of facilities by Medicare and Medicaid patients must be reviewed in order to ensure efficient utilization of facilities and services. The law and regulations require Peer Review Organizations (“PROs”) to review the appropriateness of Medicare and Medicaid patient admissions and discharges, the quality of care provided, the validity of diagnosis related group (“DRG”) classifications and the appropriateness of cases of extraordinary length of stay. PROs may deny payment for services provided, assess fines and also have the authority to recommend to the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) that a provider that is in substantial non-compliance with the standards of the PRO be excluded from participating in the Medicare program. We have contracted with PROs in each state where we do business to perform the required reviews.

Audits: Most hospitals are subject to federal audits to validate the accuracy of Medicare and Medicaid program submitted claims. If these audits identify overpayments, we could be required to pay a substantial rebate of prior years’ payments subject to various administrative appeal rights. The federal government contracts with third-party “recovery audit contractors” (“RACs”) and “Medicaid integrity contractors” (“MICs”), on a contingent fee basis, to audit the propriety of payments to Medicare and Medicaid providers. Similarly, Medicare zone program integrity contractors (“ZPICs”) target claims for potential fraud and abuse. Additionally, Medicare administrative contractors (“MACs”) must ensure they pay the right amount for covered and correctly coded services rendered to eligible beneficiaries by legitimate providers. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) consolidated many of these Medicare and Medicaid program integrity functions into new unified program integrity contractors (“UPICs”), though it remains unclear what effect, if any, this consolidation may have. We have undergone claims audits related to our receipt of federal healthcare payments during the last three years, the results of which have not required material adjustments to our consolidated results of operations. However, potential liability from future federal or state audits could ultimately exceed established reserves, and any excess could potentially be substantial. Further, Medicare and Medicaid regulations also provide for withholding Medicare and Medicaid overpayments in certain circumstances, which could adversely affect our cash flow.

Self-Referral and Anti-Kickback Legislation

The Stark Law: The Social Security Act includes a provision commonly known as the “Stark Law.” This law prohibits physicians from referring Medicare and Medicaid patients to entities with which they or any of their immediate family members have a financial relationship, unless an exception is met. These types of referrals are known as “self-referrals.” Sanctions for violating the Stark Law include civil penalties up to $27,750 for each violation, and up to $185,009 for sham arrangements. There are a number of exceptions to the self-referral prohibition, including an exception for a physician’s ownership interest in an entire hospital as opposed to an ownership interest in a hospital department unit, service or subpart. However, federal laws and regulations now limit the ability of hospitals relying on this exception to expand aggregate physician ownership interest or to expand certain hospital facilities. This regulation also places a number of compliance requirements on physician-owned hospitals related to reporting of ownership interest. There are also exceptions for many of the customary financial arrangements between physicians and providers, including employment contracts, leases and recruitment agreements that adhere to certain enumerated requirements. CMS issued a final rule in 2020 that created a new Stark exception for value-based models. Although the final regulations provide exceptions to the Stark Law, there may remain regulatory risks for participating hospitals, as well as financial and operational risks.

We monitor all aspects of our business and have developed a comprehensive ethics and compliance program that is designed to meet or exceed applicable federal guidelines and industry standards. Nonetheless, because the law in this area is complex and constantly evolving, there can be no assurance that federal regulatory authorities will not determine that any of our arrangements with physicians violate the Stark Law.

Anti-kickback Statute: A provision of the Social Security Act known as the “anti-kickback statute” prohibits healthcare providers and others from directly or indirectly soliciting, receiving, offering or paying money or other remuneration to other individuals and entities in return for using, referring, ordering, recommending or arranging for such referrals or orders of services or other items covered by a federal or state health care program. However, changes to the anti-kickback statute have reduced the intent required for violation; one is no longer required to have actual knowledge or specific intent to commit a violation of the anti-kickback statute in order to be found in violation of such law.

The anti-kickback statute contains certain exceptions, and the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (“OIG”) has issued regulations that provide for “safe harbors,” from the federal anti-kickback statute for various activities. These activities, which must meet certain requirements, include (but are not limited to) the following: investment interests, space rental, equipment rental, practitioner recruitment, personnel services and management contracts, sale of practice, referral services, warranties, discounts, employees, group purchasing organizations, waiver of beneficiary coinsurance and deductible amounts, managed care arrangements, obstetrical malpractice insurance subsidies, investments in group practices, freestanding surgery centers, donation of technology for electronic health records and referral agreements for specialty services. In 2020, the OIG issued a final rule that established an anti-kickback statute safe harbor for value based models. Although the final regulations provide safe harbors, there may remain regulatory risks for participating hospitals, as well as financial and operational risks. The fact that conduct or a business arrangement does not fall within a safe harbor or exception does not automatically render the conduct or business arrangement illegal under the anti-kickback statute. However, such conduct and business arrangements may lead to increased scrutiny by government enforcement authorities.

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Although we believe that our arrangements with physicians and other referral sources have been structured to comply with current law and available interpretations, there can be no assurance that all arrangements comply with an available safe harbor or that regulatory authorities enforcing these laws will determine these financial arrangements do not violate the anti-kickback statute or other applicable laws. Violations of the anti-kickback statute may be punished by a criminal fine of up to $100,000 for each violation or imprisonment, however, under 18 U.S.C. Section 3571, this fine may be increased to $250,000 for individuals and $500,000 for organizations. Civil money penalties may include fines of up to $112,131 per violation and damages of up to three times the total amount of the remuneration and/or exclusion from participation in Medicare and Medicaid.

Similar State Laws: Many of the states in which we operate have adopted laws that prohibit payments to physicians in exchange for referrals similar to the anti-kickback statute and the Stark Law, some of which apply regardless of the source of payment for care. These statutes typically provide criminal and civil penalties as well as loss of licensure. In many instances, the state statutes provide that any arrangement falling in a federal safe harbor will be immune from scrutiny under the state statutes. However, in most cases, little precedent exists for the interpretation or enforcement of these state laws.

These laws and regulations are extremely complex and, in many cases, we don’t have the benefit of regulatory or judicial interpretation. It is possible that different interpretations or enforcement of these laws and regulations could subject our current or past practices to allegations of impropriety or illegality or could require us to make changes in our facilities, equipment, personnel, services, capital expenditure programs and operating expenses. A determination that we have violated one or more of these laws, or the public announcement that we are being investigated for possible violations of one or more of these laws (see Item 3. Legal Proceedings), could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations and our business reputation could suffer significantly. In addition, we cannot predict whether other legislation or regulations at the federal or state level will be adopted, what form such legislation or regulations may take or what their impact on us may be.

If we are deemed to have failed to comply with the anti-kickback statute, the Stark Law or other applicable laws and regulations, we could be subjected to liabilities, including criminal penalties, civil penalties (including the loss of our licenses to operate one or more facilities), and exclusion of one or more facilities from participation in the Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state health care programs. The imposition of such penalties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Federal False Claims Act and Similar State Regulations: A current trend affecting the health care industry is the increased use of the federal False Claims Act, and, in particular, actions being brought by individuals on the government’s behalf under the False Claims Act’s qui tam, or whistleblower, provisions. Whistleblower provisions allow private individuals to bring actions on behalf of the government by alleging that the defendant has defrauded the Federal government.

When a defendant is determined by a court of law to have violated the False Claims Act, the defendant may be liable for up to three times the actual damages sustained by the government, plus mandatory civil penalties of between $13,508 to $27,018 for each separate false claim. There are many potential bases for liability under the False Claims Act. Liability often arises when an entity knowingly submits a false claim for reimbursement to the federal government. The Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 (“FERA”) amended and expanded the number of actions for which liability may attach under the False Claims Act, eliminating requirements that false claims be presented to federal officials or directly involve federal funds. FERA also clarifies that a false claim violation occurs upon the knowing retention, as well as the receipt, of overpayments. In addition, recent changes to the anti-kickback statute have made violations of that law punishable under the civil False Claims Act. Further, a number of states have adopted their own false claims provisions as well as their own whistleblower provisions whereby a private party may file a civil lawsuit on behalf of the state in state court. The False Claims Act require that federal healthcare program overpayments be returned within 60 days from the date the overpayment was identified, or by the date any corresponding cost report was due, whichever is later. Failure to return an overpayment within this period may result in additional civil False Claims Act liability.

Other Fraud and Abuse Provisions: The Social Security Act also imposes criminal and civil penalties for submitting false claims to Medicare and Medicaid. False claims include, but are not limited to, billing for services not rendered, billing for services without prescribed documentation, misrepresenting actual services rendered in order to obtain higher reimbursement and cost report fraud. Like the anti-kickback statute, these provisions are very broad.

Further, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) broadened the scope of the fraud and abuse laws by adding several criminal provisions for health care fraud offenses that apply to all health benefit programs, whether or not payments under such programs are paid pursuant to federal programs. HIPAA also introduced enforcement mechanisms to prevent fraud and abuse in Medicare. There are civil penalties for prohibited conduct, including, but not limited to billing for medically unnecessary products or services.

HIPAA Administrative Simplification and Privacy Requirements: The administrative simplification provisions of HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”), require the use of uniform electronic data transmission standards for health care claims and payment transactions submitted or received electronically. These provisions are intended to encourage electronic commerce in the health care industry. HIPAA also established federal rules protecting the privacy and security of personal health information. The privacy and security regulations address the use and disclosure of

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individual health care information and the rights of patients to understand and control how such information is used and disclosed. Violations of HIPAA can result in both criminal and civil fines and penalties.

We believe that we are in material compliance with the privacy regulations of HIPAA, as we continue to develop training and revise procedures to address ongoing compliance. The HIPAA security regulations require health care providers to implement administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of patient information. HITECH has since strengthened certain HIPAA rules regarding the use and disclosure of protected health information, extended certain HIPAA provisions to business associates, and created new security breach notification requirements. HITECH has also extended the ability to impose civil money penalties on providers not knowing that a HIPAA violation has occurred. We believe that we have been in substantial compliance with HIPAA and HITECH requirements to date. Recent changes to the HIPAA regulations may result in greater compliance requirements for healthcare providers, including expanded obligations to report breaches of unsecured patient data, as well as create new liabilities for the actions of parties acting as business associates on our behalf.

Red Flags Rule: In addition, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) Red Flags Rule requires financial institutions and businesses maintaining accounts to address the risk of identity theft. The Red Flag Program Clarification Act of 2010, signed on December 18, 2010, appears to exclude certain healthcare providers from the Red Flags Rule, but permits the FTC or relevant agencies to designate additional creditors subject to the Red Flags Rule through future rulemaking if the agencies determine that the person in question maintains accounts subject to foreseeable risk of identity theft. Compliance with any such future rulemaking may require additional expenditures in the future.

Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005: On July 29, 2005, the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 was enacted, which has the goal of reducing medical errors and increasing patient safety. This legislation establishes a confidential reporting structure in which providers can voluntarily report “Patient Safety Work Product” (“PSWP”) to “Patient Safety Organizations” (“PSOs”). Under the system, PSWP is made privileged, confidential and legally protected from disclosure. PSWP does not include medical, discharge or billing records or any other original patient or provider records but does include information gathered specifically in connection with the reporting of medical errors and improving patient safety. This legislation does not preempt state or federal mandatory disclosure laws concerning information that does not constitute PSWP. PSOs are certified by the Secretary of the HHS for three-year periods and analyze PSWP, provide feedback to providers and may report non-identifiable PSWP to a database. In addition, PSOs are expected to generate patient safety improvement strategies.

Environmental Regulations: Our healthcare operations generate medical waste that must be disposed of in compliance with federal, state and local environmental laws, rules and regulations. Infectious waste generators, including hospitals, face substantial penalties for improper disposal of medical waste, including civil penalties of up to $25,000 per day of noncompliance, criminal penalties of up to $50,000 per day, imprisonment, and remedial costs. In addition, our operations, as well as our purchases and sales of facilities are subject to various other environmental laws, rules and regulations. We believe that our disposal of such wastes is in material compliance with all state and federal laws.

Corporate Practice of Medicine: Several states, including Florida, Nevada, California and Texas, have laws and/or regulations that prohibit corporations and other entities from employing physicians and practicing medicine for a profit or that prohibit certain direct and indirect payments or fee-splitting arrangements between health care providers that are designed to induce or encourage the referral of patients to, or the recommendation of, particular providers for medical products and services. Possible sanctions for violation of these restrictions include loss of license and civil and criminal penalties. In addition, agreements between the corporation and the physician may be considered void and unenforceable. These statutes and/or regulations vary from state to state, are often vague and have seldom been interpreted by the courts or regulatory agencies. We do not expect these state corporate practice of medicine proscriptions to significantly affect our operations. Many states have laws and regulations which prohibit payments for referral of patients and fee-splitting with physicians. We do not make any such payments or have any such arrangements.

EMTALA: All of our hospitals are subject to the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (“EMTALA”). This federal law generally requires hospitals with an emergency department that are certified providers under Medicare to conduct a medical screening examination of every person who visits the hospital’s emergency room for treatment and, if the patient is suffering from a medical emergency, to either stabilize the patient’s condition or transfer the patient to a facility that can better handle the condition. Our obligation to screen and stabilize emergency medical conditions exists regardless of a patient’s ability to pay for treatment. There are severe penalties under EMTALA if a hospital fails to screen or appropriately stabilize or transfer a patient or if the hospital delays appropriate treatment in order to first inquire about the patient’s ability to pay. Penalties for violations of EMTALA include civil monetary penalties and exclusion from participation in the Medicare program. In addition to any liabilities that a hospital may incur under EMTALA, an injured patient, the patient’s family or a medical facility that suffers a financial loss as a direct result of another hospital’s violation of the law can bring a civil suit against the hospital unrelated to the rights granted under that statute.

The federal government broadly interprets EMTALA to cover situations in which patients do not actually present to a hospital’s emergency room, but present for emergency examination or treatment to the hospital’s campus, generally, or to a hospital-based clinic that treats emergency medical conditions or are transported in a hospital-owned ambulance, subject to certain exceptions. EMTALA does not generally apply to patients admitted for inpatient services; however, CMS has sought industry comments on the potential applicability of EMTALA to hospital inpatients and the responsibilities of hospitals with specialized capabilities, respectively. CMS

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has not yet issued regulations or guidance in response to that request for comments. The government also has expressed its intent to investigate and enforce EMTALA violations actively in the future. We believe that we operate in substantial compliance with EMTALA.

Health Care Industry Investigations: We are subject to claims and suits in the ordinary course of business, including those arising from care and treatment afforded by our hospitals and are party to various government investigations and litigation. Please see Item 3. Legal Proceedings included herein for additional disclosure. In addition, currently, and from time to time, some of our facilities are subjected to inquiries and/or actions and receive notices of potential non-compliance of laws and regulations from various federal and state agencies. Providers that are found to have violated these laws and regulations may be excluded from participating in government healthcare programs, subjected to potential licensure, certification, and/or accreditation revocation, subjected to fines or penalties or required to repay amounts received from the government for previously billed patient services.

We monitor all aspects of our business and have developed a comprehensive ethics and compliance program that is designed to meet or exceed applicable federal guidelines and industry standards. Because the law in this area is complex and constantly evolving, governmental investigation or litigation may result in interpretations that are inconsistent with industry practices, including ours. Although we believe our policies, procedures and practices comply with governmental regulations, no assurance can be given that we will not be subjected to inquiries or actions, or that we will not be faced with sanctions, fines or penalties in connection with the investigations. Even if we were to ultimately prevail, the government’s inquiry and/or action in connection with these matters could have a material adverse effect on our future operating results.

Our substantial Medicare, Medicaid and other governmental billings may result in heightened scrutiny of our operations. It is possible that governmental entities could initiate additional investigations or litigation in the future and that such matters could result in significant penalties as well as adverse publicity. It is also possible that our executives and/or managers could be included as targets or witnesses in governmental investigations or litigation and/or named as defendants in private litigation.

Revenue Rulings 98-15 and 2004-51: In March 1998 and May 2004, the IRS issued guidance regarding the tax consequences of joint ventures between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. As a result of the tax rulings, the IRS has proposed, and may in the future propose, to revoke the tax-exempt or public charity status of certain not-for-profit entities which participate in such joint ventures or to treat joint venture income as unrelated business taxable income to them. The tax rulings have limited development of joint ventures and any adverse determination by the IRS or the courts regarding the tax-exempt or public charity status of a not-for-profit partner or the characterization of joint venture income as unrelated business taxable income could further limit joint venture development with not-for-profit hospitals, and/or require the restructuring of certain existing joint ventures with not-for-profits.

State Rate Review: Some states where we operate hospitals have adopted legislation mandating rate or budget review for hospitals or have adopted taxes on hospital revenues, assessments or licensure fees to fund indigent health care within the state. In the aggregate, state rate reviews and indigent tax provisions have not materially, adversely affected our results of operations.

Medical Malpractice Tort Law Reform: Medical malpractice tort law has historically been maintained at the state level. All states have laws governing medical liability lawsuits. Over half of the states have limits on damages awards. Almost all states have eliminated joint and several liability in malpractice lawsuits, and many states have established limits on attorney fees. Many states had bills introduced in their legislative sessions to address medical malpractice tort reform. Proposed solutions include enacting limits on non-economic damages, malpractice insurance reform, and gathering lawsuit claims data from malpractice insurance companies and the courts for the purpose of assessing the connection between malpractice settlements and premium rates. Reform legislation has also been proposed, but not adopted, at the federal level that could preempt additional state legislation in this area.

Compliance Program: Our company-wide compliance program has been in place since 1998. Currently, the program’s elements include a Code of Conduct, risk area specific policies and procedures, employee education and training, an internal system for reporting concerns, auditing and monitoring programs, and a means for enforcing the program’s policies.

Since its initial adoption, the compliance program continues to be expanded and developed to meet the industry’s expectations and our needs. Specific written policies, procedures, training and educational materials and programs, as well as auditing and monitoring activities have been prepared and implemented to address the functional and operational aspects of our business. Specific areas identified through regulatory interpretation and enforcement activities have also been addressed in our program. Claims preparation and submission, including coding, billing, and cost reports, comprise the bulk of these areas. Financial arrangements with physicians and other referral sources, including compliance with anti-kickback and Stark laws and emergency department treatment and transfer requirements are also the focus of policy and training, standardized documentation requirements, and review and audit.

United Kingdom Regulation: Our operations in the United Kingdom are also subject to a high level of regulation relating to registration and licensing requirements, employee regulation, clinical standards, environmental rules as well as other areas. We are also subject to a highly regulated business environment, and failure to comply with the various laws and regulations applicable to us could lead to substantial penalties and other adverse effects on our business.

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Human Capital Management

Employees and Medical Staff

As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 93,800 total employees consisting of: (i) approximately 82,300 employees located in the U.S., of which approximately 59,700 were employed full-time, and; (ii) approximately 11,500 employees located in the U.K. Our hospitals are staffed by licensed physicians who have been admitted to the medical staff of individual hospitals. In a number of our markets, physicians may have admitting privileges at other hospitals in addition to ours. Within our acute care division, approximately 370 physicians are employed by physician practice management subsidiaries of ours either directly or through contracts with affiliated group practices structured as 501A corporations. Members of the medical staffs of our hospitals also serve on the medical staffs of hospitals not owned by us and may terminate their affiliation with our hospitals at any time. In addition, within our behavioral health division, approximately 490 psychiatrists are employed by subsidiaries of ours either directly or through contracts with affiliated group practices structured as 501A corporations. Each of our hospitals is managed on a day-to-day basis by a managing director employed by a subsidiary of ours. In addition, a Board of Governors, including members of the hospital’s medical staff, governs the medical, professional and ethical practices at each hospital. We believe that our relations with our employees are satisfactory.

Labor Relations

Approximately 825 of our employees at four of our hospitals are unionized. At Valley Hospital Medical Center, housekeeping and dietary employees are represented by the Culinary Workers Union, Local 226, and engineers are represented by the International Union of Operating Engineers. At Desert Springs Hospital, which is scheduled to discontinue all inpatient operations by March of 2023, engineers are represented by the International Union of Operating Engineers and registered nurses are represented by the Service Employees International Union (“SEIU”). At HRI Hospital in Boston, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, certain technicians and some clerical employees are represented by the SEIU. At Brooke Glen Behavioral Hospital, unionized employees are represented by the Teamsters, and registered nurses are represented by the Northwestern Nurses Association/Pennsylvania Association of Staff Nurses and Allied Professionals.

Culture and Work Environment

During orientation, newly hired employees learn our mission, vision, principles and values, key policies and procedures, a summary of the various benefits and resources available, and perhaps most notably, an overview of our founding principle, Service Excellence. Learning key attributes of our Service Excellence standards, which include continuous improvement, employee development, ethical and fair treatment of all, teamwork, compassion and innovation in service delivery, provides newly hired employees a thorough understanding of our company culture. Other components of our Service Excellence standards, which include treating everyone as a guest, demonstrating professionalism and excellence and practicing teamwork, are shared to help guide the desired approach to day-to-day activities.

Service Excellence Facilitator Certification Workshops are available for facility employees identified by their leadership for consistently upholding and demonstrating our Service Excellence standards. Certified facilitators foster the Service Excellence culture and deliver training at their facilities.

During 2022, we strengthened our recruitment efforts, improved the overall hiring and onboarding experience, expanded the training resources employees need to do their jobs effectively and safely, facilitated more teamwork and collaboration, addressed burnout, expanded mentorship and increased employee engagement.

Ethical Standards

Each member of our Board of Directors and senior management is committed to healthcare operations that are ethical and in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

We are committed to fostering a culture of accountability at all levels and encourage our employees to report anything they believe could be noncompliant with our values. We prohibit retaliation for the good faith reporting of compliance concerns and offer the ability for individuals to anonymously elevate any concerns. Our commitment to fairness and integrity extends to everyone with whom we interact and do business.

Health and Safety

Policies and training programs to encourage work safety are a major focus in our organization. Leading into 2022, we launched a new employee assistance program which has provided a superior level of service to all our employees and members of their households. They also provided support on site at any of our hospitals. We have continuous training on workplace safety and launched a “We Care” program guide to ensure our hospitals support employees in a detailed way in the event of an employee injury.

Employee Development

In keeping with our culture of continuous improvement, training opportunities are available for all employees, regardless of level or status. These include formal instructor-led, in-person or virtual training, informal mentoring or networking opportunities or self-administered online courses.

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Training programs are designed to assist with personal and skill development, career advancement and succession planning. In addition to mandatory training that focus on keeping employees mindful and informed of key policies and skill sets, many are voluntary. All training is tailored to include potential Americans with Disabilities Act accommodations.

Across the company, we offer educational and work opportunities, including internships, externships and clinical field placement opportunities.

We also offer financial assistance programs, such as tuition reimbursement, to support employees participating in degree or certification programs.

Equal Employment Opportunity

We are committed to the principle of Equal Employment Opportunity ("EEO") for all employees and applicants. As an EEO Employer, we support and are fully committed to recruitment, selection, placement, promotion and compensation of all individuals without regard to race, color, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy, gender identity, and sexual orientation), genetic information, national origin, disability status, protected veteran status or any other characteristic protected by federal, state or local laws.

Diversity and Inclusion

We value each member of our team and are committed to treating everyone with dignity and respect. Our commitment to diversity, equality and inclusion includes regularly monitoring employment practices to ensure equity, regardless of an employee’s gender, race or ethnicity and championing for inclusive behaviors through leadership example, policies and procedures, training and special events.

Employee Assistance

We continue to support the overall health and financial well-being of our employees across the extensive programs and benefit plans that we offer. In 2022, we continued to expand the UHS Resource Guide which provides details on access to the benefits, resources and support tools available to employees throughout our organization.

In 2022, the UHS Foundation continued to support employees and their families who suffered losses due to natural disasters across the country, including fires in Boulder, Colorado, Hurricane Ida, Hurricane Ian, and the storms that impacted Kentucky.

Competition

The health care industry is highly competitive. In recent years, competition among healthcare providers for patients has intensified in the United States due to, among other things, regulatory and technological changes, increasing use of managed care payment systems, cost containment pressures and a shift toward outpatient treatment. In all of the geographical areas in which we operate, there are other facilities that provide services comparable to those offered by our facilities. In addition, some of our competitors include hospitals that are owned by tax-supported governmental agencies or by nonprofit corporations and may be supported by endowments and charitable contributions and exempt from property, sale and income taxes. Such exemptions and support are not available to us.

In some markets, certain of our competitors may have greater financial resources, be better equipped and offer a broader range of services than us. Certain hospitals that are located in the areas served by our facilities are specialty or large hospitals that provide medical, surgical and behavioral health services, facilities and equipment that are not available at our hospitals. The increase in outpatient treatment and diagnostic facilities, outpatient surgical centers and freestanding ambulatory surgical also increases competition for us. In addition, some of our hospitals face competition from hospitals or surgery centers that are physician owned.

The number and quality of the physicians on a hospital’s staff are important factors in determining a hospital’s success and competitive advantage. Typically, physicians are responsible for making hospital admissions decisions and for directing the course of patient treatment. We believe that physicians refer patients to a hospital primarily on the basis of the patient’s needs, the quality of other physicians on the medical staff, the location of the hospital and the breadth and scope of services offered at the hospital’s facilities. We strive to retain and attract qualified doctors by maintaining high ethical and professional standards and providing adequate support personnel, technologically advanced equipment and facilities that meet the needs of those physicians.

In addition, we depend on the efforts, abilities, and experience of our medical support personnel, including our nurses, pharmacists and lab technicians and other health care professionals. We compete with other health care providers in recruiting and retaining qualified hospital management, nurses and other medical personnel. Our acute care and behavioral health care facilities are experiencing the effects of a nationwide staffing shortage, which has caused and may continue to cause an increase in salaries, wages and benefits expense in excess of the inflation rate. In addition, in some markets like California, there are requirements to maintain specified nurse-staffing levels. To the extent we cannot meet those levels, we may be required to limit the healthcare services provided in these markets which would have a corresponding adverse effect on our net operating revenues.

Many states in which we operate hospitals have CON laws. The application process for approval of additional covered services, new facilities, changes in operations and capital expenditures is, therefore, highly competitive in these states. In those states that do not have CON laws or which set relatively high levels of expenditures before they become reviewable by state authorities, competition in the form of new services, facilities and capital spending is more prevalent. See “Regulation and Other Factors.”

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Our ability to negotiate favorable service contracts with purchasers of group health care services also affects our competitive position and significantly affects the revenues and operating results of our hospitals. Managed care plans attempt to direct and control the use of hospital services and to demand that we accept lower rates of payment. In addition, employers and traditional health insurers are increasingly interested in containing costs through negotiations with hospitals for managed care programs and discounts from established charges. In return, hospitals secure commitments for a larger number of potential patients. Generally, hospitals compete for service contracts with group health care service purchasers on the basis of price, market reputation, geographic location, quality and range of services, quality of the medical staff and convenience. The importance of obtaining contracts with managed care organizations varies from market to market depending on the market strength of such organizations.

A key element of our growth strategy is expansion through the acquisition of additional hospitals in select markets. The competition to acquire hospitals is significant. We compete for acquisitions with other for-profit health care companies, private equity and venture capital firms, as well as not-for-profit entities. Some of our competitors have greater resources than we do. We intend to selectively seek opportunities to expand our base of operations by adhering to our disciplined program of rational growth, but may not be successful in accomplishing acquisitions on favorable terms.

Relationship with Universal Health Realty Income Trust

At December 31, 2022, we held approximately 5.7% of the outstanding shares of Universal Health Realty Income Trust (the “Trust”). We serve as Advisor to the Trust under an annually renewable advisory agreement, which is scheduled to expire on December 31st of each year, pursuant to the terms of which we conduct the Trust’s day-to-day affairs, provide administrative services and present investment opportunities. The advisory agreement was renewed by the Trust for 2023 at the same rate in place for 2022, 2021 and 2020, providing for an advisory computation at 0.70% of the Trust’s average invested real estate assets. We earned an advisory fee from the Trust, which is included in net revenues in the accompanying consolidated statements of income, of approximately $5.1 million during 2022, $4.4 million during 2021 and $4.1 million during 2020.

In addition, certain of our officers and directors are also officers and/or directors of the Trust. Management believes that it has the ability to exercise significant influence over the Trust, therefore we account for our investment in the Trust using the equity method of accounting.

Our pre-tax share of income from the Trust was $1.2 million during 2022, $6.2 million during 2021 and $1.1 million during 2020 , which are included in other income, net, on the accompanying consolidated statements of income for each year. We received dividends from the Trust amounting to $2.2 million during each of 2022, 2021 and 2020. Included in our share of the Trust’s income during 2021 was approximately $5.0 million related to our share of gains on various transactions recorded by the Trust, including an asset purchase and sale transaction between the Trust and UHS, as discussed below.

The carrying value of our investment in the Trust was $8.4 million and $9.4 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and is included in other assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The market value of our investment in the Trust was $37.6 million at December 31, 2022 and $46.8 million at December 31, 2021, based on the closing price of the Trust’s stock on the respective dates.

The Trust commenced operations in 1986 by purchasing certain hospital properties from us and immediately leasing the properties back to our respective subsidiaries. The base rents are paid monthly and the bonus rents, which as of January 1, 2022 are applicable only to McAllen Medical Center, are computed and paid on a quarterly basis, based upon a computation that compares current quarter revenue to a corresponding quarter in the base year. The leases with those subsidiaries are unconditionally guaranteed by us and are cross-defaulted with one another.

On December 31, 2021, we entered into an asset purchase and sale agreement with the Trust, which was amended during the first quarter of 2022, pursuant to the terms of which:

a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours purchased from the Trust, the real estate assets of the Inland Valley Campus of Southwest Healthcare System located in Wildomar, California, at its fair market value of $79.6 million.
two wholly-owned subsidiaries of ours transferred to the Trust, the real estate assets of the following properties:
o
Aiken Regional Medical Center (“Aiken”), located in Aiken, South Carolina (which includes a 211-bed acute care hospital and a 62-bed behavioral health facility), at its fair-market value of approximately $57.7 million, and;
o
Canyon Creek Behavioral Health (“Canyon Creek”), located in Temple, Texas, at its fair-market value of approximately $26.0 million.
in connection with this transaction, since the fair-market value of Aiken and Canyon Creek, which totaled approximately $83.7 million in the aggregate, exceeded the $79.6 million fair-market value of the Inland Valley Campus of Southwest Healthcare System, we received approximately $4.1 million in cash from the Trust. This transaction generated a gain of approximately $68.4 million for the Trust, our share of which (approximately $4.0 million) is included in our consolidated statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Also on December 31, 2021, Aiken and Canyon Creek (as lessees), entered into a master lease and individual property leases (with the Trust as lessor), as amended, for initial lease terms on each property of approximately twelve years, ending on December 31, 2033. Subject to the terms of the master lease, Aiken and Canyon Creek have the right to renew their leases, at the then current fair

10


market rent (as defined in the master lease), for seven, five-year optional renewal terms. The aggregate annual rental during 2022 pursuant to the leases for these two facilities, amounted to approximately $5.7 million ($3.9 million related to Aiken and $1.8 million related to Canyon Creek). There is no bonus rental component applicable to either of these leases. On each January 1st through 2033, the annual rental will increase by 2.25% on a cumulative and compounded basis.

As a result of the purchase options within the lease agreements for Aiken and Canyon Creek, the asset purchase and sale transaction is accounted for as a failed sale leaseback in accordance with U.S. GAAP. We have accounted for the asset exchange and substitution transaction with the Trust as a financing arrangement and, since we did not derecognize the real property related to Aiken and Canyon Creek, we will continue to depreciate the assets. Our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 reflects a financial liability of $80.9 million and $82.4 million, respectively, which is included in debt, for the fair value of real estate assets that we exchanged as part of the transaction. Our monthly lease payments payable to the Trust will be recorded to interest expense and as a reduction to the outstanding financial liability. The amount allocated to interest expense is determined using our incremental borrowing rate and is based on the outstanding financial liability.

The total aggregate rental for leases on the four wholly-owned hospital facilities with the Trust (excluding Clive Behavioral Health Hospital which is discussed below) was approximately $20.2 million during 2022. Total aggregate rent expense under the operating leases on three hospital facilities with the Trust (McAllen Medical Center, Wellington Regional Medical Center and Inland Valley Campus of Southwest Healthcare System) was $17.7 million and $17.1 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Pursuant to the Master Leases by certain subsidiaries of ours and the Trust as described in the table below, dated 1986 and 2021 (“the Master Leases”) which govern the leases of McAllen Medical Center and Wellington Regional Medical Center (each of which is governed by the Master Lease dated 1986), and Aiken Regional Medical Center and Canyon Creek Behavioral Health (each of which is governed by the Master Lease dated 2021), we have the option to renew the leases at the lease terms described above and below by providing notice to the Trust at least 90 days prior to the termination of the then current term. We also have the right to purchase the respective leased hospitals at their appraised fair market value upon any of the following: (i) at the end of the lease terms or any renewal terms; (ii) upon one month’s notice should a change of control of the Trust occur, or; (iii) within the time period as specified in the lease in the event that we provide notice to the Trust of our intent to offer a substitution property/properties in exchange for one (or more) of the hospital properties leased from the Trust should we be unable to reach an agreement with the Trust on the properties to be substituted. In addition, we have rights of first refusal to: (i) purchase the respective leased facilities during and for 180 days after the lease terms at the same price, terms and conditions of any third-party offer, or; (ii) renew the lease on the respective leased facility at the end of, and for 180 days after, the lease term at the same terms and conditions pursuant to any third-party offer.

In addition, we are the managing, majority member in a joint venture with an unrelated third-party that operates Clive Behavioral Health, a 100-bed behavioral health care facility located in Clive, Iowa. The real property of this facility, which was completed and opened in late, 2020, is also leased from the Trust (annual rental of approximately $2.6 million and $2.5 million during 2022 and 2021, respectively) pursuant to the lease terms as provided in the table below. In connection with the lease on this facility, the joint venture has the right to purchase the leased facility from the Trust at its appraised fair market value upon either of the following: (i) by providing notice at least 270 days prior to the end of the lease terms or any renewal terms, or; (ii) upon 30 days' notice anytime within 12 months of a change of control of the Trust (UHS also has this right should the joint venture decline to exercise its purchase right). Additionally, the joint venture has rights of first offer to purchase the facility prior to any third-party sale.

The table below provides certain details for each of the hospitals leased from the Trust as of January 1, 2023:

 

Hospital Name

 

 

Annual
Minimum
Rent

 

 

End of Lease Term

 

Renewal
Term
(years)

 

 

McAllen Medical Center

 

 

$

5,485,000

 

 

December, 2026

 

 

5

 

(a)

Wellington Regional Medical Center

 

 

$

6,477,000

 

 

December, 2026

 

 

5

 

(b)

Aiken Regional Medical Center/Aurora Pavilion Behavioral Health Services

 

 

$

3,982,000

 

 

December, 2033

 

 

35

 

(c)

Canyon Creek Behavioral Health

 

 

$

1,800,000

 

 

December, 2033

 

 

35

 

(c)

Clive Behavioral Health Hospital

 

 

$

2,701,000

 

 

December, 2040

 

 

50

 

(d)

(a)
We have one 5-year renewal option at existing lease rates (through 2031).
(b)
We have one 5-year renewal option at fair market value lease rates (through 2031). Upon the December 31, 2021 expiration of the lease on Wellington Regional Medical Center, a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours exercised its fair market value renewal option and renewed the lease for a 5-year term scheduled to expire on December 31, 2026. Effective January 1, 2022, the annual fair market value lease rate for this hospital is $6.3 million (there is no longer a bonus rental component of the lease payment). On each January 1st through 2026, the annual rent will increase by 2.50% on a cumulative and compounded basis.
(c)
We have seven 5-year renewal options at fair market value lease rates (2034 through 2068). On each January 1st through 2033, the annual rent will increase by 2.25% on a cumulative and compounded basis.
(d)
This facility is operated by a joint venture in which we are the managing, majority member and an unrelated third-party holds a minority ownership interest. The joint venture has three, 10-year renewal options at computed lease rates as stipulated in the

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lease (2041 through 2070) and two additional, 10-year renewal options at fair market values lease rates (2071 through 2090). In each January through 2040 (and potentially through 2070 if three, 10-year renewal options are exercised), the annual rental will increase by 2.75% on a cumulative and compounded basis.

In addition, certain of our subsidiaries are tenants in several medical office buildings (“MOBs”) and two free-standing emergency departments owned by the Trust or by limited liability companies in which the Trust holds 95% to 100% of the ownership interest.

In January, 2022, the Trust commenced construction on a new 86,000 rentable square feet multi-tenant MOB that is located on the campus of Northern Nevada Sierra Medical Center in Reno, Nevada. Northern Nevada Sierra Medical Center, a 158-bed newly constructed acute care hospital owned and operated by a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours, was completed and opened in the April, 2022. In connection with this MOB, which is expected to be completed and opened during the first quarter of 2023, a ground lease and a master flex lease was executed between a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours and the Trust, pursuant to the terms of which our subsidiary will master lease approximately 68% of the rentable square feet of the MOB at an initial minimum rent of $1.3 million annually. The master flex lease could be reduced during the term if certain conditions are met.

Executive Officers of the Registrant

The executive officers, whose terms will expire at such time as their successors are elected, are as follows:

 

Name and Age

 

Present Position with the Company

Marc D. Miller (52)

 

Chief Executive Officer, President and Director

Alan B. Miller (85)

 

Executive Chairman of the Board

Steve G. Filton (65)

 

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary

Matthew J. Peterson (53)

 

Executive Vice President, President of Behavioral Health Division

Edward H. Sim (51)

 

Executive Vice President, President of Acute Care Division

Mr. Marc D. Miller was appointed Chief Executive Officer and President effective January 1, 2021. He has served as President since May, 2009 and prior thereto served as Senior Vice President and co-head of our Acute Care Hospitals since 2007. He was elected a Director in May, 2006 and Vice President in 2005. He has served in various capacities related to our acute care division since 2000. He was elected to the Board of Trustees of Universal Health Realty Income Trust in December, 2008. In August, 2015, he was appointed to the Board of Directors of Premier, Inc., a publicly traded healthcare performance improvement alliance. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements-Relationship with Universal Health Realty Income Trust and Other Related Party Transactions for additional disclosure regarding the Company’s group purchasing organization agreement with Premier, Inc. Marc D. Miller is the son of Alan B. Miller, our Executive Chairman of the Board.

Mr. Alan B. Miller was appointed Executive Chairman of the Board effective January 1, 2021. He had been Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer since the Company’s inception and also served as President from inception until May, 2009. Prior thereto, he was President, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of American Medicorp, Inc. He currently serves as Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer and President of Universal Health Realty Income Trust. He is the father of Marc D. Miller, our Chief Executive Officer, President and Director.

Mr. Filton was elected Executive Vice President in 2017 and continues to serve as Chief Financial Officer since his appointment in 2003. He has also served as Secretary since 1999. He had served as Senior Vice President since 2003, as Vice President and Controller since 1991, and as Director of Corporate Accounting since 1985.

Mr. Peterson’s employment with us commenced in September, 2019 as Executive Vice President and President of our Behavioral Health Division. He was formerly employed at UnitedHealth Group for 11 years serving in various capacities including Chief Operating Officer for OptumGovernment, a health services and technology company, as well as various other Senior Vice President/Vice President roles. In addition to his civilian business career, Mr. Peterson also serves in the Air National Guard ("ANG"), U.S. Airforce, and was recently promoted to Brigadier General. He has also served for over 25 years with the ANG as a Healthcare Executive/Medical Service Corps Officer and has held numerous leadership roles.

Mr. Sim's employment with us commenced in December, 2022 as Executive Vice President and President of our Acute Care Division. He was formerly employed as Chief Operating Officer at Centura Health, since 2017. Prior to joining Centura Health, Mr. Sim served in senior leadership roles of increasing responsibility for 11 years at Baptist Health.

ITEM 1A. Risk Factors

We are subject to numerous known and unknown risks, many of which are described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Any of the events described below could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are not aware of, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, could also impact our business and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Business Operations

A significant portion of our revenue is produced by facilities located in Texas, Nevada and California.

Texas: We own 7 inpatient acute care hospitals, 12 free-standing emergency departments and 21 inpatient behavioral healthcare facilities as listed in Item 2. Properties. On a combined basis, these facilities contributed 17% and 16% of our consolidated net revenues during 2022 and 2021, respectively. On a combined basis, after deducting an allocation for corporate overhead expense, these facilities generated 27% in 2022 and 13% in 2021, of our income from operations after net income attributable to noncontrolling interest.

Nevada: We own 10 inpatient acute care hospitals, 5 free-standing emergency departments, 1 acute outpatient center and 3 inpatient behavioral healthcare facilities as listed in Item 2. Properties. On a combined basis, these facilities contributed 17% and 18% of our consolidated net revenues during 2022 and 2021, respectively. On a combined basis, after deducting an allocation for corporate overhead expense, these facilities generated 14% in 2022 and 24% in 2021, of our income from operations after net income attributable to noncontrolling interest. Excluding the impact of the $57.6 million provision for asset impairment recorded during 2022, as discussed in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Provision for Asset Impairments, after deducting an allocation for corporate overhead expense, these facilities generated 18% of our income from operations after net income attributable to noncontrolling interest during 2022.

California: We own 5 inpatient acute care hospitals, 2 acute outpatient centers, 8 inpatient behavioral healthcare facilities and 3 behavioral healthcare outpatient facilities as listed in Item 2. Properties. On a combined basis, these facilities contributed 11% of our consolidated net revenues during each of 2022 and 2021. On a combined basis, after deducting an allocation for corporate overhead expense, these facilities generated 15% in 2022 and 14% in 2021, of our income from operations after net income attributable to noncontrolling interest.

Our revenues and results of operations are significantly affected by payments received from the government and other third party payers.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from third-party payers, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Changes in these government programs in recent years have resulted in limitations on reimbursement and, in some cases, reduced levels of reimbursement for healthcare services. Payments from federal and state government programs are subject to statutory and regulatory changes, administrative rulings, interpretations and determinations, requirements for utilization review, and federal and state funding restrictions, all of which could materially increase or decrease program payments, as well as affect the cost of providing service to patients and the timing of payments to facilities. We are unable to predict the effect of recent and future policy changes on our operations. In addition, the uncertainty and fiscal pressures placed upon federal and state governments as a result of, among other things, deterioration in general economic conditions and the funding requirements from the federal healthcare reform legislation, may affect the availability of taxpayer funds for Medicare and Medicaid programs. In addition, the vast majority of the net revenues generated at our behavioral health facilities located in the United Kingdom are derived from governmental payers. If the rates paid or the scope of services covered by governmental payers in the United States or United Kingdom are reduced, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

We receive annual Medicaid revenues of approximately $100 million, or greater, from each of Texas, California, Nevada, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Washington, D.C., Florida, Kentucky and Massachusetts. We also receive Medicaid disproportionate share hospital payments from certain states including, most significantly, Texas. We are therefore particularly sensitive to potential reductions in Medicaid and other state-based revenue programs as well as regulatory, economic, environmental and competitive changes in those states.

In addition to changes in government reimbursement programs, our ability to negotiate favorable contracts with private payers, including managed care organizations, significantly affects the revenues and operating results of our hospitals. Private payers, including managed care organizations, increasingly are demanding that we accept lower rates of payment.

We expect continued third-party efforts to aggressively manage reimbursement levels and cost controls. Reductions in reimbursement amounts received from third-party payers could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and our results of operations.

If we are not able to provide high quality medical care at a reasonable price, patients may choose to receive their health care from our competitors.

In recent years, the number of quality measures that hospitals are required to report publicly has increased. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) publishes performance data related to quality measures and data on patient satisfaction surveys that hospitals submit in connection with the Medicare program. Federal law provides for the future expansion of the number of quality measures that must be reported. Additionally, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “Legislation”) requires all hospitals to annually establish, update and make public a list of their standard charges for products and services. Also, the No Surprises Act, adopted as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (“CAA”), creates additional price transparency requirements beginning January 1, 2022, including requiring providers to send health plans of insured patients and uninsured patients a good faith estimate of the expected charges and diagnostic codes prior to the scheduled date of the service or item. If any of our hospitals achieve poor

13


results on the quality measures or patient satisfaction surveys (or results that are lower than our competitors) or if our standard charges are higher than our competitors, our patient volume could decline because patients may elect to use competing hospitals or other health care providers that have better metrics and pricing. This circumstance could harm our business and results of operations.

An increase in uninsured and underinsured patients in our acute care facilities or the deterioration in the collectability of the accounts of such patients could harm our results of operations.

Collection of receivables from third-party payers and patients is our primary source of cash and is critical to our operating performance. Our primary collection risks relate to uninsured patients and the portion of the bill that is the patient’s responsibility, which primarily includes co-payments and deductibles. However, we also have substantial receivables due to us from certain state-based funding programs. We estimate our provisions for doubtful accounts based on general factors such as payer mix, the agings of the receivables, historical collection experience and assessment of probability of future collections. We routinely review accounts receivable balances in conjunction with these factors and other economic conditions that might ultimately affect the collectability of the patient accounts and make adjustments to our allowances as warranted. Significant changes in business office operations, payer mix, economic conditions or trends in federal and state governmental health coverage could affect our collection of accounts receivable, cash flow and results of operations. If we experience unexpected increases in the growth of uninsured and underinsured patients or in bad debt expenses, our results of operations will be harmed.

Our hospitals face competition for patients from other hospitals and health care providers.

The healthcare industry is highly competitive, and competition among hospitals, and other healthcare providers for patients and physicians has intensified in recent years. In all of the geographical areas in which we operate, there are other facilities that provide services comparable to those offered by our facilities. Some of our competitors include hospitals that are owned by tax-supported governmental agencies or by nonprofit corporations and may be supported by endowments and charitable contributions and exempt from property, sales and income taxes. Such exemptions and support are not available to us.

In some markets, certain of our competitors may have greater financial resources, be better equipped and offer a broader range of services than we offer. The number of inpatient facilities, as well as outpatient surgical and diagnostic centers, many of which are fully or partially owned by physicians, in the geographic areas in which we operate has increased significantly. As a result, most of our hospitals operate in an increasingly competitive environment.

We also operate health care facilities in the United Kingdom where the National Health Service (the “NHS”) is the principal provider of healthcare services. In addition to the NHS, we face competition in the United Kingdom from independent sector providers and other publicly funded entities for patients.

If our competitors are better able to attract patients, recruit physicians and other healthcare professionals, expand services or obtain favorable managed care contracts at their facilities, we may experience a decline in patient volume and our business may be harmed.

Our performance depends on our ability to recruit and retain quality physicians.

Typically, physicians are responsible for making hospital admissions decisions and for directing the course of patient treatment. As a result, the success and competitive advantage of our hospitals depends, in part, on the number and quality of the physicians on the medical staffs of our hospitals, the admitting practices of those physicians and our maintenance of good relations with those physicians. Physicians generally are not employees of our hospitals, and, in a number of our markets, physicians have admitting privileges at other hospitals in addition to our hospitals. They may terminate their affiliation with us at any time. If we are unable to maintain high ethical and professional standards, adequate support personnel and technologically advanced equipment and facilities that meet the needs of those physicians, they may be discouraged from referring patients to our facilities and our results of operations may decline.

It may become difficult for us to attract and retain an adequate number of physicians to practice in certain of the non-urban communities in which our hospitals are located. Our failure to recruit physicians to these communities or the loss of physicians in these communities could make it more difficult to attract patients to our hospitals and thereby may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Generally, the top ten attending physicians within each of our facilities represent a large share of our inpatient revenues and admissions. The loss of one or more of these physicians, even if temporary, could cause a material reduction in our revenues, which could take significant time to replace given the difficulty and cost associated with recruiting and retaining physicians.

If we do not continually enhance our hospitals with the most recent technological advances in diagnostic and surgical equipment, our ability to maintain and expand our markets will be adversely affected.

The technology used in medical equipment and related devices is constantly evolving and, as a result, manufacturers and distributors continue to offer new and upgraded products to health care providers. To compete effectively, we must continually assess our equipment needs and upgrade when significant technological advances occur. If our facilities do not stay current with

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technological advances in the health care industry, patients may seek treatment from other providers and/or physicians may refer their patients to alternate sources, which could adversely affect our results of operations and harm our business.

Our performance depends on our ability to attract and retain qualified nurses and medical support staff and we face competition for staffing that may increase our labor costs and harm our results of operations.

We depend on the efforts, abilities, and experience of our medical support personnel, including our nurses, pharmacists and lab technicians and other healthcare professionals. We compete with other healthcare providers in recruiting and retaining qualified hospital management, nurses and other medical personnel.

The nationwide shortage of nurses and other clinical staff and support personnel has been a significant operating issue facing us and other healthcare providers. In particular, like others in the healthcare industry, we continue to experience a shortage of nurses and other clinical staff and support personnel at our acute care and behavioral health care hospitals in many geographic areas, which shortage has been exacerbated by the COVID‑19 pandemic. We are treating patients with COVID‑19 in our facilities and, in some areas, the increased demand for care is putting a strain on our resources and staff, which has required us to utilize higher‑cost temporary labor and pay premiums above standard compensation for essential workers. The length and extent of the disruptions caused by the COVID‑19 pandemic are currently unknown; however, we expect such disruptions to continue for the foreseeable future. This staffing shortage may require us to further enhance wages and benefits to recruit and retain nurses and other clinical staff and support personnel or require us to hire expensive temporary personnel. To the extent we cannot maintain sufficient staffing levels at our hospitals, we may be required to limit the acute and behavioral health care services provided at certain of our hospitals which would have a corresponding adverse effect on our net revenues. In addition, in some markets like California, there are requirements to maintain specified nurse-staffing levels which could adversely affect our net revenues to the extent we cannot meet those levels. If these states increase mandatory nurse-staffing ratios or additional states in which we operate adopt mandatory nurse-staffing ratios, such changes could significantly affect labor costs and have an adverse impact on revenues if we are required to limit admissions in order to meet the required ratios.

We cannot predict the degree to which we will be affected by the future availability or cost of attracting and retaining talented medical support staff. If our general labor and related expenses increase, we may not be able to raise our rates correspondingly. Our failure to either recruit and retain qualified hospital management, nurses and other medical support personnel or control our labor costs could harm our results of operations.

Increased labor union activity is another factor that could adversely affect our labor costs. Union organizing activities and certain potential changes in federal labor laws and regulations could increase the likelihood of employee unionization in the future, to the extent a greater portion of our employee base unionized, it is possible our labor costs could increase materially.

The failure of certain employers, or the closure of certain facilities, could have a disproportionate impact on our hospitals.

The economies in the communities in which our hospitals operate are often dependent on a small number of large employers. Those employers often provide income and health insurance for a disproportionately large number of community residents who may depend on our hospitals and other health care facilities for their care. The failure of one or more large employer or the closure or substantial reduction in the number of individuals employed at facilities located in or near the communities where our hospitals operate, could cause affected employees to move elsewhere to seek employment or lose insurance coverage that was otherwise available to them. The occurrence of these events could adversely affect our revenue and results of operations, thereby harming our business.

The trend toward value-based purchasing may negatively impact our revenues.

We believe that value-based purchasing initiatives of both governmental and private payers tying financial incentives to quality and efficiency of care will increasingly affect the results of operations of our hospitals and other healthcare facilities and may negatively impact our revenues if we are unable to meet expected quality standards. The Legislation contains a number of provisions intended to promote value-based purchasing in federal healthcare programs. Medicare now requires providers to report certain quality measures in order to receive full reimbursement increases for inpatient and outpatient procedures that were previously awarded automatically. In addition, hospitals that meet or exceed certain quality performance standards will receive increased reimbursement payments, and hospitals that have “excess readmissions” for specified conditions will receive reduced reimbursement. Furthermore, Medicare no longer pays hospitals additional amounts for the treatment of certain hospital-acquired conditions unless the conditions were present at admission. Beginning in federal fiscal year 2015, hospitals that rank in the worst 25% of all hospitals nationally for hospital acquired conditions in the previous year were subject to reduced Medicare reimbursements. The Legislation also prohibits the use of federal funds under the Medicaid program to reimburse providers for treating certain provider-preventable conditions.

There is a trend among private payers toward value-based purchasing of healthcare services, as well. Many large commercial payers require hospitals to report quality data, and several of these payers will not reimburse hospitals for certain preventable adverse events. We expect value-based purchasing programs, including programs that condition reimbursement on patient outcome measures, to become more common and to involve a higher percentage of reimbursement amounts. We are unable at this time to predict how this trend will affect our results of operations, but it could negatively impact our revenues if we are unable to meet quality standards established by both governmental and private payers.

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Controls designed to reduce inpatient services and increasing rates of “denials” may reduce our revenues.

Controls imposed by third-party payers designed to reduce admissions and lengths of stay, commonly referred to as “utilization review,” have affected and are expected to continue to affect our facilities. Utilization review entails the review of the admission and course of treatment of a patient by managed care plans. Inpatient utilization, average lengths of stay and occupancy rates continue to be negatively affected by payer-required preadmission authorization and utilization review and by payer pressure to maximize outpatient and alternative healthcare delivery services for less acutely ill patients. Efforts to impose more stringent cost controls are expected to continue. In addition, we have been experiencing increasing rates of denied claims (“denials”) from managed care payers which have reduced our net revenues and increased our operating costs as we devote additional resources to enhanced documentation and collection efforts. Although we cannot predict the effect these factors will have on our operations, significant limits on the scope of services reimbursed, and reimbursements withheld due to denials, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

We depend heavily on key management personnel and the departure of one or more of our key executives or a significant portion of our local hospital management personnel could harm our business.

The expertise and efforts of our senior executives and key members of our local hospital management personnel are critical to the success of our business. The loss of the services of one or more of our senior executives or of a significant portion of our local hospital management personnel could significantly undermine our management expertise and our ability to provide efficient, quality healthcare services at our facilities, which could harm our business. Effective January 1, 2021, Mr. Alan B. Miller, our Founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer stepped down as Chief Executive Officer and Mr. Marc D. Miller, our former President, was appointed and has been serving as our Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Alan B. Miller continues to serve in his current role as Executive Chairman of our Board of Directors in addition to retaining certain other management responsibilities within our Company.

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

COVID-19 and other pandemics, epidemics, or public health threats may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which began during the second half of March, 2020, has had a material effect on our operations and financial results since that time. The length and extent of the disruptions caused by the COVID‑19 pandemic are currently unknown; however, we expect such disruptions to continue into the future. Since the future volumes and severity of COVID-19 patients remain highly uncertain and subject to change, including potential increases in future COVID-19 patient volumes caused by new variants of the virus, as well as related pressures on staffing and wage rates, we are not able to fully quantify the impact that these factors will have on our future financial results. However, developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic could continue to materially affect our financial performance.

The healthcare industry is labor intensive and salaries, wages and benefits are subject to inflationary pressures, as are supplies expense and other operating expenses. Our ability to pass on increased costs associated with providing healthcare to Medicare and Medicaid patients is limited due to various federal, state and local laws which, in certain circumstances, limit our ability to increase prices.

In addition, the nationwide shortage of nurses and other clinical staff and support personnel has been a significant operating issue facing us and other healthcare providers. Like others in the healthcare industry, we continue to experience a shortage of nurses and other clinical staff and support personnel at our acute care and behavioral health care hospitals in many geographic areas. In some areas, the labor scarcity is putting a strain on our resources and staff, which has required us to utilize higher‑cost temporary labor and pay premiums above standard compensation for essential workers. This staffing shortage has required us to hire expensive temporary personnel and/or enhance wages and benefits to recruit and retain nurses and other clinical staff and support personnel. At certain facilities, particularly within our behavioral health care segment, we have been unable to fill all vacant positions and, consequently, have been required to limit patient volumes. These factors, which had a material unfavorable impact on our results of operations during 2022, have been moderating to a certain degree but are expected to continue to have an unfavorable material impact on our results of operations for the foreseeable future.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a constrained supply environment which could result in higher cost to procure, and potential unavailability of, critical personal protection equipment, pharmaceuticals and medical supplies. Should a supply disruption result in the inability to obtain especially high margin drugs and compound components necessary for patient care, our consolidated financial statements could be negatively impacted.

In addition, CMS issued an Interim Final Rule (“IFR”) effective November 5, 2021 mandating COVID-19 vaccinations for all applicable staff at all Medicare and Medicaid certified facilities. Under the IFR, facilities covered by this regulation must establish a policy ensuring all eligible staff have received the first dose of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccine or a one-dose COVID-19 vaccine prior to providing any care, treatment, or other services by December 5, 2021. All eligible staff must have received the necessary shots to be fully vaccinated – either two doses of Pfizer or Moderna or one dose of Johnson & Johnson – by January 4, 2022. The regulation also provides for exemptions based on recognized medical conditions or religious beliefs, observances, or practices. Under the IFR, facilities must develop a similar process or plan for permitting exemptions in alignment with federal law. If facilities fail to comply

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with the IFR by the deadlines established, they are subject to potential termination from the Medicare and Medicaid program for non-compliance. In addition, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration also issued an Emergency Temporary Standard (“ETS”) requiring all businesses with 100 or more employees to be vaccinated by January 4, 2022. Pursuant to the ETS, those employees not vaccinated by that date will need to show a negative COVID-19 test weekly and wear a face mask in the workplace. Legal challenges to these rules ensued, and the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a stay of the ETS requirements but permitted the IFR vaccination requirements to go into effect pending additional litigation. CMS has indicated that hospitals in states not involved in the Supreme Court litigation are expected to be in compliance with IFR vaccination requirements consistent with the dates referenced above. Hospitals in states that were involved in the Supreme Court litigation were required to come into compliance with first dose requirements by February 13, 2022 and second dose requirements by March 15, 2022. Hospitals in Texas were required to come into compliance with the first dose requirements by February 19, 2022 and the second dose requirements by March 21, 2022. We cannot predict at this time the potential viability or impact of any such additional litigation. Implementation of these rules could have an impact on staffing at our facilities for those employees that are not vaccinated in accordance with IFR and ETS requirements, and associated loss of revenues and increased costs resulting from staffing issues could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response thereto impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on numerous factors and future developments, most of which are beyond our control or ability to predict. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the future volumes and severity of COVID-19 patients caused by new variants of the virus, as well as related pressures on staffing and wage rates and the strained supply environment, is highly uncertain and subject to change. We are not able to fully quantify the impact that these factors will have on our future financial results, but expect developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic to materially affect our financial performance for the foreseeable future. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience materially adverse impacts on our financial condition and our results of operations as a result of its macroeconomic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. If general economic conditions, including inflation, deteriorate or remain volatile or uncertain for an extended period of time, our liquidity and ability to repay our outstanding debt may be harmed and the trading price of our common stock could decline. These factors may affect the availability, terms or timing on which we may obtain any additional funding. There can be no assurance that we will be able to raise additional funds on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

Despite these measures, there have been waves of escalated COVID-19 cases at various times, including the third and fourth quarters of 2021 and continuing into the first quarter of 2022, in many states in the U.S., including many states in which we operate hospitals. Recently, COVID-19 vaccinations have begun to be administered and while we expect the administration of vaccines will assist in easing the number of COVID-19 patients, the pace at which this is likely to occur is very difficult to predict. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken in response thereto impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on numerous factors and future developments, most of which are beyond our control or ability to predict. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We are not able to fully quantify the impact that these factors will have on our future financial results, but expect developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic to materially affect our financial performance for the foreseeable future. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience materially adverse impacts on our financial condition and our results of operations as a result of its macroeconomic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.

There is a high degree of uncertainty regarding the implementation and impact of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) and the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act (“PPPHCE Act”).

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), a stimulus package signed into law on March 27, 2020, authorizes $100 billion in grant funding to hospitals and other healthcare providers to be distributed through the Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund (the “PHSSEF”). These funds are not required to be repaid provided the recipients attest to and comply with certain terms and conditions, including limitations on balance billing and not using PHSSEF funds to reimburse expenses or losses that other sources are obligated to reimburse. However, since the expenses and losses will be ultimately measured over the life of the COVID-19 pandemic, potential retrospective unfavorable adjustments in future periods, of funds recorded as revenues in prior periods, could occur. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) initially distributed $30 billion of this funding based on each provider’s share of total Medicare fee-for-service reimbursement in 2019. Subsequently, HHS distributed $50 billion in CARES Act funding (including the $30 billion already distributed) proportional to providers’ share of 2018 net patient revenue. We have received payments from these initial distributions of the PHSSEF as disclosed herein. HHS has indicated that distributions of the remaining $50 billion will be targeted primarily to hospitals in COVID-19 high impact areas, to rural providers, safety net hospitals and certain Medicaid providers and to reimburse providers for COVID-19-related treatment of uninsured patients. We have received payments from these targeted distributions of the PHSSEF, as disclosed herein. The CARES Act also makes other forms of financial assistance available to healthcare providers, including through Medicare and Medicaid payment adjustments and an expansion of the Medicare Accelerated and Advance Payment Program, which makes available accelerated payments of Medicare funds in order to increase cash flow to providers. On April 26, 2020, CMS announced it was reevaluating and temporarily suspending the Accelerated and Advance Payment Program in light of the availability of the PHSSEF and the significant funds available through other programs. We have received accelerated payments under this program as disclosed herein.

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The Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act (the “PPPHCE Act”), a stimulus package signed into law on April 24, 2020, includes additional emergency appropriations for COVID-19 response, including $75 billion to be distributed to eligible providers through the PHSSEF. Recipients will not be required to repay the government for funds received, provided they comply with HHS-defined terms and conditions. A third phase of PHSSEF allocations was recently announced, under which $24.5 billion was made available for providers who previously received, rejected or accepted PHSSEF payments. Applicants that have not yet received PHSSEF payments of 2 percent of patient revenue will receive a payment that, when combined with prior payments (if any), equals 2 percent of patient care revenue. Providers that have already received payments of approximately 2 percent of annual revenue from patient care can submit more information and may be eligible for an additional payment. On December 27, 2020, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (“CAA”) was signed into law. The CAA appropriated an additional $3 billion to the PHSSEF, codified flexibility for providers to calculate lost revenues and permitted parent organizations to allocate PHSSEF targeted distributions to subsidiary organizations. The CAA also provides that not less than 85 percent of the unobligated PHSSEF amounts and any future funds recovered from health care providers should be used for additional distributions that consider financial losses and changes in operating expenses in the third or fourth quarters of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021 that are attributable to the coronavirus. The CAA provided additional funding for testing, contact tracing and vaccine administration. Providers receiving payments were required to sign terms and conditions regarding utilization of the payments. Any provider receiving funds in excess of $10,000 in the aggregate will be required to report data elements to HHS detailing utilization of the payments. Providers will report healthcare related expenses attributable to COVID-19 that have not been reimbursed by another source, which may include general and administrative or healthcare related operating expenses. Funds may also be applied to lost revenues, represented as a negative change in year-over-year net patient care operating income. All such fund payments must be expended by June 30, 2021.

HHS had adopted certain reimbursement policies and regulatory flexibilities favorable to providers during the Public Health Emergency (“PHE”) declared in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. HHS has published guidance indicating its intent for the PHE to expire on May 11, 2023. The end of the PHE status will result in the conclusion of those policies over various designated timeframes. We cannot predict whether the loss of any such favorable conditions available to providers during the declared PHE will ultimately have a negative financial impact on us.

There is a high degree of uncertainty surrounding the implementation of the CARES Act and the PPPHCE Act, and the federal government may consider additional stimulus and relief efforts, but we are unable to predict whether additional stimulus measures will be enacted or their impact. There can be no assurance as to the total amount of financial and other types of assistance we will receive under the CARES Act and the PPPHCE Act, and it is difficult to predict the impact of such legislation on our operations or how they will affect operations of our competitors. Moreover, we are unable to assess the extent to which anticipated negative impacts on us arising from the COVID-19 pandemic will be offset by amounts or benefits received or to be received under the CARES Act and the PPPHCE Act.

Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment

Reductions or changes in Medicare and Medicaid funding could have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations.

The Budget Control Act of 2011 (the “Budget Control Act”) mandated significant reductions in federal spending for fiscal years 2012-2021, including a reduction of 2% on all Medicare payments during this period. Subsequent legislation enacted by Congress eliminated the 2% reduction through 2021 but extended these reductions through 2030 in exchange. The payment reduction suspension was extended through March 31, 2022, with a 1% payment reduction from then until June 30, 2022 and the full 2% payment reduction thereafter. The most recent legislation extended these reductions through 2032. Please see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Sources of Revenue-Medicare, for additional disclosure.

Beginning in 2024 and continuing through 2027, the Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (“DSH”) allotment to the states from federal funds will be reduced. Such reductions have been delayed several times, most recently under the CAA, which further delays the DSH reductions through 2024. During the reduction period, state Medicaid DSH allotments from federal funds will be reduced by $8 billion annually. Reductions are imposed on states based on percentage of uninsured individuals, Medicaid utilization and uncompensated care.

We are subject to uncertainties regarding health care reform.

On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Legislation. Two primary goals of the Legislation are to provide for increased access to coverage for healthcare and to reduce healthcare-related expenses.

Although it was expected that as a result of the Legislation there would be a reduction in uninsured patients, which would reduce our expense from uncollectible accounts receivable, the Legislation makes a number of other changes to Medicare and Medicaid which we believe may have an adverse impact on us. It has been projected that the Legislation will result in a net reduction in Medicare and Medicaid payments to hospitals totaling $155 billion over 10 years. The Legislation revises reimbursement under the Medicare and Medicaid programs to emphasize the efficient delivery of high quality care and contains a number of incentives and penalties under these programs to achieve these goals. The Legislation implements a value-based purchasing program, which will reward the delivery of efficient care. Conversely, certain facilities will receive reduced reimbursement for failing to meet quality parameters; such hospitals will include those with excessive readmission or hospital-acquired condition rates. It remains unclear what portions of that legislation may remain, or what any replacement or alternative programs may be created by future legislation.

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A 2012 U.S. Supreme Court ruling limited the federal government’s ability to expand health insurance coverage by holding unconstitutional sections of the Legislation that sought to withdraw federal funding for state noncompliance with certain Medicaid coverage requirements. Pursuant to that decision, the federal government may not penalize states that choose not to participate in the Medicaid expansion program by reducing their existing Medicaid funding. Therefore, states can choose to accept or not to participate without risking the loss of federal Medicaid funding. As a result, many states, including Texas, have not expanded their Medicaid programs without the threat of loss of federal funding. CMS had granted section 1115 demonstration waivers providing for work and community engagement requirements for certain Medicaid eligible individuals. However, most recently, the Biden Administration has expressed disfavor with Medicaid program work requirements, with the understanding that such requirements pose a substantial risk that many potential demonstration beneficiaries would be prevented from initially enrolling in coverage or that the requirements would lead to a sizable number of eligibility suspensions and eventual disenrollments among beneficiaries who are initially able to enroll. Accordingly, CMS has recently revoked certain State Medicaid program approvals including work requirements.

The various provisions in the Legislation that directly or indirectly affect Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement are scheduled to take effect over a number of years. The impact of the Legislation on healthcare providers will be subject to implementing regulations, interpretive guidance and possible future legislation or legal challenges. Certain Legislation provisions, such as that creating the Medicare Shared Savings Program, create uncertainty in how healthcare may be reimbursed by federal programs in the future. Thus, we cannot predict the impact of the Legislation on our future reimbursement at this time and we can provide no assurance that the Legislation will not have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations.

The Legislation also contained provisions aimed at reducing fraud and abuse in healthcare. The Legislation amended several existing laws, including the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the False Claims Act, making it easier for government agencies and private plaintiffs to prevail in lawsuits brought against healthcare providers. While Congress had previously revised the intent requirement of the Anti-Kickback Statute to provide that a person is not required to “have actual knowledge or specific intent to commit a violation of” the Anti-Kickback Statute in order to be found in violation of such law, the Legislation also provides that any claims for items or services that violate the Anti-Kickback Statute are also considered false claims for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act. The Legislation provides that a healthcare provider that retains an overpayment in excess of 60 days is subject to the federal civil False Claims Act, although certain final regulations implementing this statutory requirement remain pending. The Legislation also expands the Recovery Audit Contractor program to Medicaid. These amendments also make it easier for severe fines and penalties to be imposed on healthcare providers that violate applicable laws and regulations.

We have partnered with local physicians in the ownership of certain of our facilities. These investments have been permitted under an exception to the physician self-referral law. The Legislation permits existing physician investments in a hospital to continue under a “grandfather” clause if the arrangement satisfies certain requirements and restrictions, but physicians are prohibited from increasing the aggregate percentage of their ownership in the hospital. The Legislation also imposes certain compliance and disclosure requirements upon existing physician-owned hospitals and restricts the ability of physician-owned hospitals to expand the capacity of their facilities. As discussed below, should the Legislation be repealed in its entirety, this aspect of the Legislation would also be repealed restoring physician ownership of hospitals and expansion right to its position and practice as it existed prior to the Legislation.

The impact of the Legislation on each of our hospitals may vary. Because Legislation provisions are effective at various times over the next several years, we anticipate that many of the provisions in the Legislation may be subject to further revision. Initiatives to repeal the Legislation, in whole or in part, to delay elements of implementation or funding, and to offer amendments or supplements to modify its provisions have been persistent. The ultimate outcomes of legislative attempts to repeal or amend the Legislation and legal challenges to the Legislation are unknown. Legislation has already been enacted that has eliminated the penalty for failing to maintain health coverage that was part of the original Legislation. In addition, Congress has considered legislation that would, if enacted, in material part: (i) eliminate the large employer mandate to obtain or provide health insurance coverage, respectively; (ii) permit insurers to impose a surcharge up to 30 percent on individuals who go uninsured for more than two months and then purchase coverage; (iii) provide tax credits towards the purchase of health insurance, with a phase-out of tax credits accordingly to income level; (iv) expand health savings accounts; (v) impose a per capita cap on federal funding of state Medicaid programs, or, if elected by a state, transition federal funding to block grants, and; (vi) permit states to seek a waiver of certain federal requirements that would allow such state to define essential health benefits differently from federal standards and that would allow certain commercial health plans to take health status, including pre-existing conditions, into account in setting premiums.

It remains unclear what portions of the Legislation may remain, or whether any replacement or alternative programs may be created by any future legislation. Any such future repeal or replacement may have significant impact on the reimbursement for healthcare services generally, and may create reimbursement for services competing with the services offered by our hospitals. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the adoption of any future federal or state healthcare reform legislation will not have a negative financial impact on our hospitals, including their ability to compete with alternative healthcare services funded by such potential legislation, or for our hospitals to receive payment for services.

While attempts to repeal the entirety of the Legislation have not been successful to date, a key provision of the Legislation was repealed as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and on December 14, 2018, a Texas Federal District Court Judge declared the Legislation unconstitutional, reasoning that the individual mandate tax penalty was essential to and not severable from the remainder

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of the Legislation. The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court which ultimately held in California v. Texas that the plaintiffs lacked standing to challenge the Legislation’s requirement to obtain minimum essential health insurance coverage, or the individual mandate. The Court dismissed the case without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the Legislation. On September 7, 2022, the same Texas Federal District Court judge, in the case of Braidwood Management v. Becerra, ruled that the requirement that certain health plans cover services with an “A” or “B” recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force without cost sharing violates the Appointments Clause of the U.S. Constitution and that the coverage of certain HIV prevention medication violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. We are unable to predict the outcome of this litigation or its potential impact at this time. While the results of the 2020 elections potentially reduce the risk of the Legislation being eliminated in whole or in part, the continued uncertainties regarding implementation of the Legislation create unpredictability for the strategic and business planning efforts of health care providers, which in itself constitutes a risk.

On March 11, 2021, President Biden signed the American Rescue Plan (“ARP”) into law. The ARP extends eligibility for Legislation health insurance subsidies to people buying their own health coverage on the Marketplace who have household incomes above 400% of the federal poverty level. ARP also increased the amount of financial assistance for people at lower incomes who were already eligible under the Legislation. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”) was passed on August 16, 2022, which among other things, allows for CMS to negotiate prices for certain single-source drugs and biologics reimbursed under Medicare Part B and Part D, beginning with 10 high-cost drugs paid for by Medicare Part D starting in 2026, followed by 15 Part D drugs in 2027, 15 Part B or Part D drugs in 2028, and 20 Part B or Part D drugs in 2029 and beyond. The IRA also continued the expanded subsidies for individuals to obtain private health insurance under the Legislation through 2025. The effect of IRA on hospitals and the healthcare industry in general is not yet known.

Under the Legislation, hospitals are required to make public a list of their standard charges, and effective January 1, 2019, CMS has required that this disclosure be in machine-readable format and include charges for all hospital items and services and average charges for diagnosis-related groups. On November 27, 2019, CMS published a final rule on “Price Transparency Requirements for Hospitals to Make Standard Charges Public.” This rule took effect on January 1, 2021 and requires all hospitals to also make public their payer-specific negotiated rates, minimum negotiated rates, maximum negotiated rates and cash for all items and services, including individual items and services and service packages, that could be provided by a hospital to a patient. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in daily monetary penalties.

As part of the CAA, Congress passed legislation aimed at preventing or limiting patient balance billing in certain circumstances. The CAA addresses surprise medical bills stemming from emergency services, out-of-network ancillary providers at in-network facilities, and air ambulance carriers. The legislation prohibits surprise billing when out-of-network emergency services or out-of-network services at an in-network facility are provided, unless informed consent is received. In these circumstances providers are prohibited from billing the patient for any amounts that exceed in-network cost-sharing requirements. On July 13, 2021, HHS, the Department of Labor and the Department of the Treasury issued an interim final rule, which begins to implement this legislation. The rule would limit our ability to receive payment for services at usually higher out-of-network rates in certain circumstances and prohibit out-of-network payments in other circumstances.

We are required to treat patients with emergency medical conditions regardless of ability to pay.

In accordance with our internal policies and procedures, as well as the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, or EMTALA, we provide a medical screening examination to any individual who comes to one of our hospitals while in active labor and/or seeking medical treatment (whether or not such individual is eligible for insurance benefits and regardless of ability to pay) to determine if such individual has an emergency medical condition. If it is determined that such person has an emergency medical condition, we provide such further medical examination and treatment as is required to stabilize the patient’s medical condition, within the facility’s capability, or arrange for transfer of such individual to another medical facility in accordance with applicable law and the treating hospital’s written procedures. Our obligations under EMTALA may increase substantially going forward; CMS has sought stakeholder comments concerning the potential applicability of EMTALA to hospital inpatients and the responsibilities of hospitals with specialized capabilities, respectively, but has yet to issue further guidance in response to that request. If the number of indigent and charity care patients with emergency medical conditions we treat increases significantly, or if regulations expanding our obligations to inpatients under EMTALA is proposed and adopted, our results of operations will be harmed.

If we fail to continue to meet the promoting interoperability criteria related to electronic health record systems (“EHR”), our operations could be harmed.

Pursuant to Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (“HITECH”) regulations, hospitals that did not qualify as a meaningful user of EHR by 2015 were subject to a reduced market basket update to the inpatient prospective payment system (“IPPS”) standardized amount in 2015 and each subsequent fiscal year. In the 2019 IPPS final rule, CMS re-named the meaningful use program to “promoting interoperability”. We believe that all of our acute care hospitals have met the applicable promoting interoperability criteria and therefore are not subject to a reduced market basked update to the IPPS standardized amount. However, under the HITECH Act, hospitals must continue to meet the applicable criteria in each fiscal year or they will be subject to a market basket update reduction in a subsequent fiscal year. Failure of our acute care hospitals to continue to meet the applicable meaningful use criteria would have an adverse effect on our future net revenues and results of operations.

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If we fail to comply with extensive laws and government regulations, we could suffer civil or criminal penalties or be required to make significant changes to our operations that could reduce our revenue and profitability.

The healthcare industry is required to comply with extensive and complex laws and regulations at the federal, state and local government levels relating to, among other things: hospital billing practices and prices for services; relationships with physicians and other referral sources; adequacy of medical care and quality of medical equipment and services; ownership of facilities; qualifications of medical and support personnel; confidentiality, maintenance, privacy and security issues associated with health-related information and patient medical records; the screening, stabilization and transfer of patients who have emergency medical conditions; certification, licensure and accreditation of our facilities; operating policies and procedures, and; construction or expansion of facilities and services.

Among these laws are the federal False Claims Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, (“HIPAA”), the federal anti-kickback statute and the provision of the Social Security Act commonly known as the “Stark Law.” These laws, and particularly the anti-kickback statute and the Stark Law, impact the relationships that we may have with physicians and other referral sources. We have a variety of financial relationships with physicians who refer patients to our facilities, including employment contracts, leases and professional service agreements. We also provide financial incentives, including minimum revenue guarantees, to recruit physicians into communities served by our hospitals. The Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, or OIG, has enacted safe harbor regulations that outline practices that are deemed protected from prosecution under the anti-kickback statute. A number of our current arrangements, including financial relationships with physicians and other referral sources, may not qualify for safe harbor protection under the anti-kickback statute. Failure to meet a safe harbor does not mean that the arrangement necessarily violates the anti-kickback statute, but may subject the arrangement to greater scrutiny. We cannot assure that practices that are outside of a safe harbor will not be found to violate the anti-kickback statute. CMS published a Medicare self-referral disclosure protocol, which is intended to allow providers to self-disclose actual or potential violations of the Stark law. Because there are only a few judicial decisions interpreting the Stark law, there can be no assurance that our hospitals will not be found in violation of the Stark Law or that self-disclosure of a potential violation would result in reduced penalties.

Federal regulations issued under HIPAA contain provisions that require us to implement and, in the future, may require us to implement additional costly electronic media security systems and to adopt new business practices designed to protect the privacy and security of each of our patient’s health and related financial information. Such privacy and security regulations impose extensive administrative, physical and technical requirements on us, restrict our use and disclosure of certain patient health and financial information, provide patients with rights with respect to their health information and require us to enter into contracts extending many of the privacy and security regulatory requirements to third parties that perform duties on our behalf. Additionally, recent changes to HIPAA regulations may result in greater compliance requirements, including obligations to report breaches of unsecured patient data, as well as create new liabilities for the actions of parties acting as business associates on our behalf.

These laws and regulations are extremely complex, and, in many cases, we do not have the benefit of regulatory or judicial interpretation. In the future, it is possible that different interpretations or enforcement of these laws and regulations could subject our current or past practices to allegations of impropriety or illegality or could require us to make changes in our facilities, equipment, personnel, services, capital expenditure programs and operating expenses. A determination that we have violated one or more of these laws (see Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements - Commitments and Contingencies, as included this Form 10-K), or the public announcement that we are being investigated for possible violations of one or more of these laws, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations and our business reputation could suffer significantly. In addition, we cannot predict whether other legislation or regulations at the federal or state level will be adopted, what form such legislation or regulations may take or what their impact on us may be. See Item 1 Business—Self-Referral and Anti-Kickback Legislation.

If we are deemed to have failed to comply with the anti-kickback statute, the Stark Law or other applicable laws and regulations, we could be subjected to liabilities, including criminal penalties, civil penalties (including the loss of our licenses to operate one or more facilities), and exclusion of one or more facilities from participation in the Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs. The imposition of such penalties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We also operate health care facilities in the United Kingdom and have operations and commercial relationships with companies in other foreign jurisdictions and, as a result, are subject to certain U.S. and foreign laws applicable to businesses generally, including anti-corruption laws. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act regulates U.S. companies in their dealings with foreign officials, prohibiting bribes and similar practices, and requires that they maintain records that fairly and accurately reflect transactions and appropriate internal accounting controls. In addition, the United Kingdom Bribery Act has wide jurisdiction over certain activities that affect the United Kingdom.

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Our operations in the United Kingdom are also subject to a high level of regulation relating to registration and licensing requirements employee regulation, clinical standards, environmental rules as well as other areas. We are also subject to a highly regulated business environment, and failure to comply with the various laws and regulations, applicable to us could lead to substantial penalties, and other adverse effects on our business.

We are subject to occupational health, safety and other similar regulations and failure to comply with such regulations could harm our business and results of operations.

We are subject to a wide variety of federal, state and local occupational health and safety laws and regulations. Regulatory requirements affecting us include, but are not limited to, those covering: (i) air and water quality control; (ii) occupational health and safety (e.g., standards regarding blood-borne pathogens and ergonomics, etc.); (iii) waste management; (iv) the handling of asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive substances; and (v) other hazardous materials. If we fail to comply with those standards, we may be subject to sanctions and penalties that could harm our business and results of operations.

We are subject to pending legal actions, purported stockholder class actions, governmental investigations and regulatory actions.

We and our subsidiaries are subject to pending legal actions, governmental investigations and regulatory actions (see Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements - Commitments and Contingencies, as included this Form 10-K). We may become subject to additional medical malpractice lawsuits, product liability lawsuits, class action lawsuits and other legal actions in the ordinary course of business.

Defending ourselves against the allegations in the lawsuits and governmental investigations, or similar matters and any related publicity, could potentially entail significant costs and could require significant attention from our management and our reputation could suffer significantly. We are unable to predict the outcome of these matters or to reasonably estimate the amount or range of any such loss; however, these lawsuits and the related publicity and news articles that have been published concerning these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows which in turn could cause a decline in our stock price. In an effort to resolve one or more of these matters, we may choose to negotiate a settlement. Amounts we pay to settle any of these matters may be material. All professional and general liability insurance we purchase is subject to policy limitations. We believe that, based on our past experience and actuarial estimates, our insurance coverage is adequate considering the claims arising from the operations of our hospitals. While we continuously monitor our coverage, our ultimate liability for professional and general liability claims could change materially from our current estimates. If such policy limitations should be partially or fully exhausted in the future, or payments of claims exceed our estimates or are not covered by our insurance, it could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

We are and may become subject to other loss contingencies, both known and unknown, which may relate to past, present and future facts, events, circumstances and occurrences. Should an unfavorable outcome occur in some or all of our legal proceedings or other loss contingencies, or if successful claims and other actions are brought against us in the future, there could be a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and liquidity.

In particular, government investigations, as well as qui tam and stockholder lawsuits, may lead to material fines, penalties, damages payments or other sanctions, including exclusion from government healthcare programs. The federal False Claims Act permits private parties to bring qui tam, or whistleblower, lawsuits on behalf of the government against companies alleging that the defendant has defrauded the federal government. These private parties are entitled to share in any amounts recovered by the government, and, as a result, the number of whistleblower lawsuits that have been filed against providers has increased significantly in recent years. Because qui tam lawsuits are filed under seal, we could be named in one or more such lawsuits of which we are not aware. Settlements of lawsuits involving Medicare and Medicaid issues routinely require both monetary payments and corporate integrity agreements, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows.

The failure of certain employers, or the closure of certain facilities, could have a disproportionate impact on our hospitals.

The economies in the communities in which our hospitals operate are often dependent on a small number of large employers. Those employers often provide income and health insurance for a disproportionately large number of community residents who may depend on our hospitals and other health care facilities for their care. The failure of one or more large employer or the closure or substantial reduction in the number of individuals employed at facilities located in or near the communities where our hospitals operate, could cause affected employees to move elsewhere to seek employment or lose insurance coverage that was otherwise available to them. The occurrence of these events could adversely affect our revenue and results of operations, thereby harming our business.

If any of our existing health care facilities lose their accreditation or any of our new facilities fail to receive accreditation, such facilities could become ineligible to receive reimbursement under Medicare or Medicaid.

The construction and operation of healthcare facilities are subject to extensive federal, state and local regulation relating to, among other things, the adequacy of medical care, equipment, personnel, operating policies and procedures, fire prevention, rate-setting and compliance with building codes and environmental protection. Additionally, such facilities are subject to periodic inspection by government authorities to assure their continued compliance with these various standards.

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All of our hospitals are deemed certified, meaning that they are accredited, properly licensed under the relevant state laws and regulations and certified under the Medicare program. The effect of maintaining certified facilities is to allow such facilities to participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. We believe that all of our healthcare facilities are in material compliance with applicable federal, state, local and other relevant regulations and standards. However, should any of our healthcare facilities lose their deemed certified status and thereby lose certification under the Medicare or Medicaid programs, such facilities would be unable to receive reimbursement from either of those programs and our business could be materially adversely effected.

State efforts to regulate the construction or expansion of health care facilities could impair our ability to expand.

Many of the states in which we operate hospitals have enacted Certificates of Need, or (“CON”), laws as a condition prior to hospital capital expenditures, construction, expansion, modernization or initiation of major new services. Our failure to obtain necessary state approval could result in our inability to complete a particular hospital acquisition, expansion or replacement, make a facility ineligible to receive reimbursement under the Medicare or Medicaid programs, result in the revocation of a facility’s license or impose civil or criminal penalties on us, any of which could harm our business.

In addition, significant CON reforms have been proposed in a number of states that would increase the capital spending thresholds and provide exemptions of various services from review requirements. In the past, we have not experienced any material adverse effects from those requirements, but we cannot predict the impact of these changes upon our operations.

Risks Related to Information Technology

A cyber security incident could cause a violation of HIPAA, breach of member privacy, or other negative impacts.

We rely extensively on our information technology (“IT”) systems to manage clinical and financial data, communicate with our patients, payers, vendors and other third parties and summarize and analyze operating results. In addition, we have made significant investments in technology to adopt and utilize electronic health records and to become meaningful users of health information technology pursuant to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Our IT systems are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, facility damage, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, security breaches including credit card or personally identifiable information breaches, vandalism, theft, natural disasters, catastrophic events, human error and potential cyber threats, including malicious codes, worms, phishing attacks, denial of service attacks, ransomware and other sophisticated cyber-attacks, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. As cyber criminals continue to become more sophisticated through evolution of their tactics, techniques and procedures, we have taken, and will continue to take, additional preventive measures to strengthen the cyber defenses of our networks and data. However, if any of our systems are damaged, fail to function properly or otherwise become unavailable, we may incur substantial costs to repair or replace them, and may experience loss or corruption of critical data such as protected health information or other data subject to privacy laws and proprietary business information and interruptions or disruptions and delays in our ability to perform critical functions, which could materially and adversely affect our businesses and results of operations and could result in significant penalties or fines, litigation, loss of customers, significant damage to our reputation and business, and other losses. In addition, our future results of operations, as well as our reputation, could be adversely impacted by theft, destruction, loss, or misappropriation of public health information, other confidential data or proprietary business information.

In September, 2020, we had experienced an information technology security incident which led us to suspend user access to our information technology applications related to operations located in the United States. While our information technology applications were offline, patient care was delivered safely and effectively at our facilities across the country utilizing established back-up processes, including offline documentation methods. We have investigated the nature and potential impact of the security incident and engaged third-party information technology and forensic vendors to assist. No evidence of unauthorized access, copying or misuse of any patient or employee data has been identified to date. Promptly after the incident, our information technology applications were restored at our acute care and behavioral health hospitals, as well as at the corporate level, thereby re-establishing connections to all major systems and applications, including electronic medical records, laboratory and pharmacy systems and our hospitals resumed normal operations.

Risks Related to the Market Conditions and Liquidity

Our revenues and volume trends may be adversely affected by certain factors over which we have no control.

Our revenues and volume trends are dependent on many factors, including physicians’ clinical decisions and availability, payer programs shifting to a more outpatient-based environment, whether or not certain services are offered, seasonal and severe weather conditions, including the effects of extreme low temperatures, hurricanes and tornadoes, earthquakes, climate change, current local economic and demographic changes. We have a high concentration of facilities in various geographic areas, including states that have a potentially higher risk of experiencing events such as severe weather conditions and earthquakes. Given the location of our facilities, we are particularly susceptible to revenue loss, cost increase, or damage caused by severe weather conditions or natural disasters such as hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, or tornadoes. Any significant loss due to a natural disaster may not be covered by insurance and may lead to an increase in the cost of insurance or unavailability on acceptable terms. Climate change may also have effects on our business by increasing the cost of property insurance or making coverage unavailable on acceptable terms. To the extent that significant changes in the climate occur in areas where our facilities are located, we may experience increased frequency of severe

23


weather conditions or natural disasters or other changes to weather patterns, all of which may result in physical damage to or a decrease in demand for properties affected by these conditions. Should the impact of climate change be material in nature or occur for lengthy periods of time, our financial condition, revenues, results of operations, or cash flow may be adversely affected. In addition, government regulation intended to mitigate the impact of climate change, severe weather patterns, or natural disasters could result in additional required capital expenditures to comply with such regulation without a corresponding increase in our revenues. In addition, technological developments and pharmaceutical improvements may reduce the demand for healthcare services or the profitability of the services we offer. Further, the Medicare program’s three-year phase out and eventual elimination of the Inpatient Only List, a list of surgeries and procedures that are only covered by Medicare when provided in an inpatient setting, may reduce inpatient volumes.

A worsening of economic and employment conditions in the United States could materially affect our business and future results of operations.

Our patient volumes, revenues and financial results depend significantly on the universe of patients with health insurance, which to a large extent is dependent on the employment status of individuals in our markets. Worsening of economic conditions, including inflation and rising interest rates, may result in a higher unemployment rate which may increase the number of individuals without health insurance. As a result, our facilities may experience a decrease in patient volumes, particularly in less intense, more elective service lines, or an increase in services provided to uninsured patients. These factors could have a material unfavorable impact on our future patient volumes, revenues and operating results.

In addition, as of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $3.9 billion of goodwill recorded on our consolidated balance sheet. Should the revenues and financial results of our acute care and/or behavioral health care facilities be materially, unfavorably impacted due to, among other things, a worsening of the economic and employment conditions in the United States that could negatively impact our patient volumes and reimbursement rates, a continued rise in the unemployment rate and increases in the number of uninsured patients treated at our facilities, we may incur future charges to recognize impairment in the carrying value of our goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Legal uncertainty or a worsening of the economic conditions in the United Kingdom could materially affect our business and future results of operations.

On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom affirmatively voted in a non-binding referendum in favor of the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union (“Brexit”) and it was approved by vote of the British legislature. On March 29, 2017, the United Kingdom triggered Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, formally starting negotiations regarding its exit from the European Union. On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom formally exited the European Union. On December 24, 2020, the United Kingdom and the European Union reached a post-Brexit trade and cooperation agreement that created new business and security requirements and preserved the United Kingdom’s tariff- and quota-free access to the European Union member states. The trade and cooperation agreement was provisionally applied as of January 1, 2021 and entered into force on May 1, 2021, following ratification by the European Union.

Changes to the trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union may result in increased cost of goods imported into the United Kingdom. Additional currency volatility could result in a weaker British pound, which may decrease the profitability of our operations in the United Kingdom. A weaker British pound versus the U.S. Dollar also causes local currency results of our United Kingdom operations to be translated into fewer U.S. Dollars during a reporting period. While we may elect to enter into hedging arrangements to protect our business against certain currency fluctuations, these hedging arrangements do not provide comprehensive protection, and our results of operations could be adversely affected by foreign exchange fluctuations.

Brexit could lead to legal and regulatory uncertainty as the United Kingdom determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate. Brexit could also lead to increased legal and regulatory complexity as national laws and regulations in the United Kingdom start to diverge from European Union laws and regulations. For instance, rules for data transfers outside of the United Kingdom and European Economic Area have changed significantly with Brexit and a recent Court of European Justice decision, and are subject to further revision and updated regulatory guidance, making necessary compliance measures challenging to ascertain and implement with respect to our United Kingdom operations. The exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union could also create future economic uncertainty, both in the United Kingdom and globally, and could cause disruptions to and create uncertainty surrounding our business. Any of these effects of Brexit, and others we cannot anticipate, could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We continue to see rising costs in construction materials and labor. Such increased costs could have an adverse effect on the cash flow return on investment relating to our capital projects.

The cost of construction materials and labor has significantly increased. As we continue to invest in modern technologies, emergency rooms and operating room expansions, the construction of medical office buildings for physician expansion and reconfiguring the flow of patient care, we spend large amounts of money generated from our operating cash flow or borrowed funds. Although we evaluate the financial feasibility of such projects by determining whether the projected cash flow return on investment exceeds our cost of capital, such returns may not be achieved if the cost of construction continues to rise significantly or the expected patient volumes are not attained.

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The deterioration of credit and capital markets may adversely affect our access to sources of funding and we cannot be certain of the availability and terms of capital to fund the growth of our business when needed.

We require substantial capital resources to fund our acquisition growth strategy and our ongoing capital expenditure programs for renovation, expansion, construction and addition of medical equipment and technology. We believe that our capital expenditure program is adequate to expand, improve and equip our existing hospitals. We cannot predict, however, whether financing for our growth plans and capital expenditure programs will be available to us on satisfactory terms when needed, which could harm our business.

To fund all or a portion of our future financing needs, we rely on borrowings from various sources including fixed rate, long-term debt as well as borrowings pursuant to our revolving credit facility and accounts receivable securitization program. If any of the lenders were unable to fulfill their future commitments, our liquidity could be impacted, which could have a material unfavorable impact our results of operations and financial condition. The increase in interest rates has substantially increased our borrowing costs and reduced our ability to access the capital markets on favorable terms. Additional increases in interest rates and the effect on capital markets could adversely affect our ability to carry out our strategy.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The number of outstanding shares of our Class B Common Stock is subject to potential increases or decreases.

At December 31, 2022, 23.6 million shares of Class B Common Stock were reserved for issuance upon conversion of shares of Class A, C and D Common Stock outstanding, for issuance upon exercise of options to purchase Class B Common Stock and for issuance of stock under other incentive plans. Class A, C and D Common Stock are convertible on a share for share basis into Class B Common Stock. To the extent that these shares were converted into or exercised for shares of Class B Common Stock, the number of shares of Class B Common Stock available for trading in the public market place would increase substantially and the current holders of Class B Common Stock would own a smaller percentage of that class.

In addition, from time-to-time, our Board of Directors approve stock repurchase programs authorizing us to purchase shares of our Class B Common Stock on the open market at prevailing market prices or in negotiated transactions off the market. Such repurchases decrease the number of outstanding shares of our Class B Common Stock. During 2022, in conjunction with our stock repurchase program, we repurchased approximately 6.7 million shares at an aggregate cost of approximately $811 million. As of December 31, 2022, we had an aggregate available repurchase authorization of approximately $947 million pursuant to this program, including a $1.4 billion increase authorized by our Board of Directors in February, 2022. Pursuant to our stock repurchase program, shares of our Class B Common Stock may be repurchased, from time to time as conditions allow, on the open market or in negotiated private transactions. There is no expiration date for our stock repurchase programs.

Our ability to repurchase shares will depend upon, among other factors, our cash flows from operations, our available capital and potential future capital requirements for strategic transactions, including acquisitions, debt service requirements, and investing in our existing markets as well as our results of operations, financial condition, interest rates, our access to the capital markets and other factors beyond our control that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. A suspension or elimination of our share repurchase could have a negative effect on our stock price.

Conversely, as a potential means of generating additional funds to operate and expand our business, we may from time-to-time issue equity through the sale of stock which would increase the number of outstanding shares of our Class B Common Stock. Based upon factors such as, but not limited to, the market price of our stock, interest rate on borrowings and uses or potential uses for cash, repurchase or issuance of our stock could have a dilutive effect on our future basic and diluted earnings per share.

The right to elect the majority of our Board of Directors and the majority of the general shareholder voting power resides with the holders of Class A and C Common Stock, the majority of which is owned by Alan B. Miller, Executive Chairman of our Board of Directors.

Our Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that, with respect to the election of directors, holders of Class A Common Stock vote as a class with the holders of Class C Common Stock, and holders of Class B Common Stock vote as a class with holders of Class D Common Stock, with holders of all classes of our Common Stock entitled to one vote per share.

As of March 24, 2022, the shares of Class A and Class C Common Stock constituted 9.7% of the aggregate outstanding shares of our Common Stock, had the right to elect five members of the Board of Directors and constituted 89.5% of our general voting power as of that date. As of March 24, 2022, the shares of Class B and Class D Common Stock (excluding shares issuable upon exercise of options) constituted 90.3% of the outstanding shares of our Common Stock, had the right to elect two members of the Board of Directors and constituted 10.5% of our general voting power as of that date.

As to matters other than the election of directors, our Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides that holders of Class A, Class B, Class C and Class D Common Stock all vote together as a single class, except as otherwise provided by law.

Each share of Class A Common Stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote; each share of Class B Common Stock entitles the holder thereof to one-tenth of a vote; each share of Class C Common Stock entitles the holder thereof to 100 votes (provided the holder of Class C Common Stock holds a number of shares of Class A Common Stock equal to ten times the number of shares of

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Class C Common Stock that holder holds); and each share of Class D Common Stock entitles the holder thereof to ten votes (provided the holder of Class D Common Stock holds a number of shares of Class B Common Stock equal to ten times the number of shares of Class D Common Stock that holder holds).

In the event a holder of Class C or Class D Common Stock holds a number of shares of Class A or Class B Common Stock, respectively, less than ten times the number of shares of Class C or Class D Common Stock that holder holds, then that holder will be entitled to only one vote for every share of Class C Common Stock, or one-tenth of a vote for every share of Class D Common Stock, which that holder holds in excess of one-tenth the number of shares of Class A or Class B Common Stock, respectively, held by that holder. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, may require beneficial owners to provide satisfactory evidence that such owner holds ten times as many shares of Class A or Class B Common Stock as Class C or Class D Common Stock, respectively, if such facts are not apparent from our stock records.

Since a substantial majority of the Class A shares and Class C shares are controlled by Mr. Alan B. Miller and members of his family, one of whom is Marc D. Miller, our Chief Executive Officer, President and a director, and they can elect a majority of our company’s directors and effect or reject most actions requiring approval by stockholders without the vote of any other stockholders, there are potential conflicts of interest in overseeing the management of our company.

In addition, because this concentrated control could discourage others from initiating any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transaction that may otherwise be beneficial to our businesses, our business and prospects and the trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.

ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 2. Properties

Executive and Administrative Offices and Commercial Health Insurer

We own various office buildings in King of Prussia and Wayne, Pennsylvania, Brentwood, Tennessee, Denton, Texas and Reno, Nevada.

Facilities

The following tables set forth the name, location, type of facility and, for acute care hospitals and behavioral health care facilities, the number of licensed beds:

Acute Care Hospitals

Name of Facility

 

Location

 

Number of
Beds

 

Real
Property
Ownership
Interest

 

Aiken Regional Medical Centers (1)

Aiken, South Carolina

211

Leased

Aurora Pavilion Behavioral Health Services (1)

Aiken, South Carolina

62

Leased

ER at Sweetwater

North Augusta, South Carolina

Owned

Centennial Hills Hospital Medical Center

Las Vegas, Nevada

339

Owned

ER at Valley Vista

North Las Vegas, Nevada

Owned

Corona Regional Medical Center

Corona, California

238

Owned

Desert Springs Hospital Medical Center

Las Vegas, Nevada

282

Owned

Desert View Hospital

Pahrump, Nevada

25

Owned

Doctors Hospital of Laredo (6)

Laredo, Texas

183

Owned

Doctors Hospital Emergency Room Saunders

Laredo, Texas

Owned

Doctors Hospital Emergency Room South

Laredo, Texas

Leased

Fort Duncan Regional Medical Center

Eagle Pass, Texas

101

Owned

The George Washington University Hospital (19)

Washington, D.C.

395

Leased

Henderson Hospital

Henderson, Nevada

303

Owned

ER at Green Valley Ranch

Henderson, Nevada

Owned

Lakewood Ranch Medical Center

Lakewood Ranch, Florida

120

Owned

ER at Fruitville

Sarasota, Florida

Owned

Manatee Memorial Hospital

Bradenton, Florida

295

Owned

ER at Sun City

Wimauma, Florida

−−

 

Northern Nevada Medical Center

Sparks, Nevada

219

Owned

26


Name of Facility

 

Location

 

Number of
Beds

 

Real
Property
Ownership
Interest

 

ER at McCarran NW

Reno, Nevada

Owned

Northern Nevada Sierra Medical Center

Reno, Nevada

158

Owned

Northwest Texas Healthcare System

Amarillo, Texas

405

Owned

Northwest Texas Healthcare System Behavioral Health

Amarillo, Texas

90

Owned

Northwest Emergency at Town Square

Amarillo, Texas

Owned

Northwest Emergency on Georgia

Amarillo, Texas

Owned

Palmdale Regional Medical Center

Palmdale, California

184

Owned

South Texas Health System (2)

 

 

 

Edinburg Regional Medical Center/Children’s Hospital (2)

Edinburg, Texas

251

Owned

South Texas Health System Behavioral (2)

McAllen, Texas

134

Owned

South Texas Health System Heart (2)

McAllen, Texas

60

Owned

South Texas Health System McAllen (1) (2)

McAllen, Texas

431

Leased

South Texas Health System ER Alamo (2)

Alamo, Texas

Owned

South Texas Health System ER McColl (2)

Edinburg, Texas

Owned

South Texas Health System ER Mission (1) (2)

Mission, Texas

Leased

South Texas Health System ER Monte Cristo (2)

Edinburg, Texas

Owned

South Texas Health System ER Ware Road (2)

McAllen, Texas

Owned

South Texas Health System ER Weslaco (1) (2)

Weslaco, Texas

Leased

Southwest Healthcare System

 

 

 

Inland Valley Medical Center Campus

Wildomar, California

120

Owned

Rancho Springs Medical Center Campus

Murrieta, California

120

Owned

Spring Valley Hospital Medical Center

Las Vegas, Nevada

364

Owned

ER at Blue Diamond

Las Vegas, Nevada

Owned

          Valley Health Specialty Hospital

Las Vegas, Nevada

66

Owned

St. Mary’s Regional Medical Center

Enid, Oklahoma

229

Owned

Summerlin Hospital Medical Center

Las Vegas, Nevada

485

Owned

Temecula Valley Hospital

Temecula, California

140

Owned

Texoma Medical Center

Denison, Texas

354

Owned

TMC Behavioral Health Center

Denison, Texas

60

Owned

ER at Anna

Anna, Texas

Owned

ER at Sherman

Sherman, Texas

Owned

Valley Hospital Medical Center

Las Vegas, Nevada

328

Owned

Elite Medical Center (ER)

Las Vegas, Nevada

Owned

Wellington Regional Medical Center (1)

Wellington, Florida

235

Leased

ER at Westlake

Westlake, Florida

        —

     Leased

 

Inpatient Behavioral Health Care Facilities

 

United States:

 

 

 

Name of Facility

 

Location

 

Number of
Beds

 

Real
Property
Ownership
Interest

 

Alabama Clinical Schools

Birmingham, Alabama

80

Owned

Alliance Health Center

Meridian, Mississippi

214

Owned

Anchor Hospital

Atlanta, Georgia

122

Owned

Arbour Hospital

Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts

136

Owned

Arrowhead Behavioral Health (16)

Maumee, Ohio

48

Owned

Austin Oaks Hospitals

Austin, Texas

80

Owned

Beaumont Behavioral Health (18)

Dearborn, Michigan

87

Leased

Behavioral Hospital of Bellaire

Houston, Texas

124

Leased

Belmont Pines Hospital

Youngstown, Ohio

121

Owned

Benchmark Behavioral Health Systems

Woods Cross, Utah

94

Owned

BHC Alhambra Hospital

Rosemead, California

115

Owned

Black Bear Lodge

Sautee Nacoochee, Georgia

115

Owned

Bloomington Meadows Hospital

Bloomington, Indiana

78

Owned

27


United States:

 

 

 

Name of Facility

 

Location

 

Number of
Beds

 

Real
Property
Ownership
Interest

 

Brentwood Behavioral Healthcare

Flowood, Mississippi

121

Owned

Brentwood Hospital

Shreveport, Louisiana

260

Owned

The Bridgeway

North Little Rock, Arkansas

127

Owned

The Brook Hospital—Dupont

Louisville, Kentucky

88

Owned

The Brook Hospital—KMI

Louisville, Kentucky

110

Owned

Brooke Glen Behavioral Hospital

Fort Washington, Pennsylvania

146

Owned

Brynn Marr Hospital

Jacksonville, North Carolina

102

Owned

Calvary Center

Phoenix, Arizona

68

Owned

Canyon Creek Behavioral Health

Temple, Texas

102

Leased

Canyon Ridge Hospital

Chino, California

157

Owned

The Carolina Center for Behavioral Health

Greer, South Carolina

156

Owned

Cedar Creek Hospital

St. Johns, Michigan

54

Owned

Cedar Grove Residential Treatment Center

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

45

Owned

Cedar Hills Hospital (7)

Portland, Oregon

98

Owned

Cedar Ridge Behavioral Hospital

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

60

Owned

Cedar Ridge Residential Treatment Center

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

56

Owned

Cedar Ridge Bethany

Bethany, Oklahoma

56

Owned

Cedar Springs Hospital

Colorado Springs, Colorado

110

Owned

Centennial Peaks Hospital

Louisville, Colorado

104

Owned

Center for Change

Orem, Utah

58

Owned

Central Florida Behavioral Hospital

Orlando, Florida

174

Owned

Chris Kyle Patriots Hospital

Anchorage, Alaska

36

Owned

Clarion Psychiatric Center

Clarion, Pennsylvania

112

Owned

Clive Behavioral Health (11)

Clive, Iowa

100

Leased

Coastal Behavioral Health

Savannah, Georgia

50

Owned

Coastal Harbor Treatment Center

Savannah, Georgia

141

Owned

Columbus Behavioral Center for Children and Adolescents

Columbus, Indiana

57

Owned

Compass Intervention Center